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歷史典故:不可不知的典故出處

2016-05-24

  我們都知道典故的意思,可我們經常都會忘了典故的出處,在這里,小編huihui將分享給各位讀者,不可不知的典故由來。

We all know the meaning of allusions, but we often forget the source of allusions. Here, Xiaobian Huihui will share with readers, the origin of the allusions.

  一、中國常見節日和歷史典故

1. Frequently holidays and historical allusions in China

  ◆春節的由來

◆ The origin of the Spring Festival

  農歷正月初一是春節,又叫陰歷(農歷)年,俗稱“過年”。這是我國民間最隆重、最熱鬧的一個古老傳統節日。春節是漢族最重要的節日。然而,我國是個多民族的國家,除漢族外,還有滿、蒙古,瑤、壯、白、高山、赫哲、哈尼、達斡爾、侗、黎等十幾個少數民族也有過春節的習俗。春節的歷史很悠久,它起源于殷商時期年頭歲尾的祭神祭祖活動。有關年的傳說也很多。古代的春節叫“元日”、“元旦”、“新年”。辛亥革命后,才將農歷正月初一正式定名為春節。漫長的歷史歲月使年俗活動內容變得異常豐富多彩。其中,那些敬天祭神的迷信內容,已逐漸被淘汰,而那些富有生活情趣的內容,像貼春聯、貼年畫、貼“?!弊?、剪窗花、蒸年糕、包餃子、燃爆竹、除夕守夜、拜年等習俗至今仍很盛行。我國最早的春聯,是五代時期孟昶寫在桃木板上的:“新年納余慶,嘉節號長春”。用紅紙寫春聯始于明朝。年畫源于唐朝的門神,它和燃爆竹一樣,在古代都是用來驅鬼避邪的,現在卻成了專為增加喜慶氣氛的習俗了。貼“?!弊衷谒纬郧熬陀辛?,人們把寫在紅方紙上的“?!弊?,故意倒貼在門、窗、家俱上,取其“福到(倒)了”之意。除夕守歲是最重要的年俗,這在魏晉時期就有記載。除夕晚上,與家老小熬年守歲,歡聚酣飲,共享天倫之樂,這是炎黃子孫至今仍很重視的年俗。待第一聲雞啼之后,新的一年開始了,男女老少均著節日盛裝,先給家族中的長者拜年祝壽,然后走親串友,相互道賀祝福。此時的神州大地,處處閃光溢彩,從初一到十五,人們一至沉浸在歡樂、祥和、文明的節日氣氛中。

On the first day of the first lunar month, the Spring Festival, also known as the lunar calendar (lunar calendar), commonly known as "New Year". This is the most solemn and lively traditional festival in China. The Spring Festival is the most important festival in the Han nationality. However, my country is a multi -ethnic country. In addition to the Han nationality, there are also more than a dozen ethnic minorities such as Yao, Zhuang, Bai, Bai, High Mountain, Henhe, Heni, Daur, 侗, Li, etc. have also had the customs of the Spring Festival. The history of the Spring Festival is very long, and it originated from the age of sacrifice ancestors at the end of the Yin and Shang dynasties. There are also many legends about the year. The ancient Spring Festival was called "Yuanri", "New Year's Day", and "New Year". After the 1911 Revolution, the first day of the first lunar month was officially named the Spring Festival. The long historical years make the content of the annual activities extremely colorful. Among them, the superstition content of the worship of the gods has gradually been eliminated, and those content that is full of life, such as the spring couplet, the new year painting, the "blessing", the window cut flower, the steamed rice cake, the dumplings, the firecrackers, the night in the New Year's Eve, the night of the night, The customs of New Year's Eve are still prevalent. The earliest Spring Festival couplet in my country was written on the peach board during the Five Dynasties: "New Year's Na Yu Qing, Jiajie Changchun". Write the Spring Festival couplet with red paper in the Ming Dynasty. New Year's paintings originated from the gate gods of the Tang Dynasty. Like the firecrackers, it was used to drive ghosts to avoid evil in ancient times, but now it has become a custom that is specially added to the festive atmosphere. The word "blessing" was available before the Song Dynasty. People deliberately posted the word "blessing" written on the red square paper on the door, window, and furniture, and took its meaning of "blessing to (pour). The New Year's Eve is the most important year, which is recorded in the Wei and Jin dynasties. On New Year's Eve, with the old and young people, they stayed together for the year, gathered together, and shared the joy of heaven. After the first chicken cry, the new year has begun. Both men, women, and children are dressed in festivals. First, give birth to the elderly in the family, and then go to relatives and bless each other. At this time, the land of Shenzhou was full of flashes everywhere. From the first to fifteenth, people were immersed in the festive atmosphere of joy, peace, and civilization.

  ◆除夕的由來

◆ The origin of New Year's Eve

  俗稱“年關”,臘刀三十(有的年份是二十九),是農歷一年最后一天。是日午后,家家戶戶打掃庭院,整理室內外環境,接著貼春聯、門神、半簾子,掛黃錢,焚香祭祖,燃放鞭炮,表示除舊。晚上,家家吃青粉燴菜,叫“裝倉”,表示全家團聚,人壽年豐。全家老幼飽食后,還要剩廠一些,意在“生活富裕,年年有余”。是夜,全家人徹底不眠,叫“熬年”或“守歲”。小輩給長輩磕頭辭歲,長輩要給小輩發“福錢”,也叫“壓歲錢”。

Commonly known as "Nian Guan", the thirty -ninth year of the sword (some years), the last day of the lunar calendar year.In the afternoon, every family cleaned the courtyard, organized the indoor and outdoor environment, and then pasted the spring couplet, the door god, the half -curtain, hanging yellow money, burning incense worship ancestors, and setting off firecrackers, indicating that the old was removed.In the evening, every family ate green noodles and stewed vegetables, called "loading warehouses", indicating that the whole family was reunited and the life of life was abundant.After the whole family is full of food, there are some factory left, which is intended to "rich life and more than every year."It was night, the whole family was completely sleeping, called "New Year's Eve" or "Shouling".The juniors resign for the elders, and the elders have to send "blessing money" to the juniors, also called "New Year's Money".

  ◆元宵節的由來

◆ The origin of the Lantern Festival

  正月十五為元宵節(又稱燈會)。據乾隆十四牛張紹美編的《五涼考治六德集全志?武威縣志》載:“元宵,四市豎坊,懸燈,雜扮花鼓.高蹺.演百戲?!迸f時,金塔寺等地有黃河燈會,情景亦十分壯觀。建國后,歷年元宵節的燈會勝似往昔。節日之前,企事業職工,紛紛結扎彩門,懸掛花燈。有花卉燈、動物燈、八仙過海燈、西游記故事燈,爭奇斗艷,氣象萬千。有愛好者在燈內裝置微型電動機,勝似走馬燈。最引人注目的是騰云駕霧的金龍燈,足有lo多米長。是夜,城內和城郊居民,蜂擁而至,萬頭攢動,人流如潮。武威習俗,觀燈時必從龍燈下鉆過,祈求合家平安,萬字如意。又說龍是吉祥物,鉆了龍燈,就會人丁興旺。農村燈會別有情趣,彩燈古樸典雅,鄉土氣息濃郁。有用玉米芯制做的火炬燈,也有用山藥蛋、蘿卜頭制做的彩燈。墻頭上、馬棚下,處處有燈,燈光通明。據史籍記載:武威燈會之盛況,自唐已有,并聞名于長安。故有唐玄宗與道士葉法善夜游涼州燈會流連忘返的傳說。武威元宵燈會,不論新俗、舊俗,都要舉辦3天,即正月十四、十五、十六。

The fifteenth day of the first month is the Lantern Festival (also known as the lantern festival). According to Qianlong's fourteen cow Zhang Shaomei, "Wu Liang Tu Governance of the Six German Collection? Wuwei County" contains: "Lantern Festival, four cities, hanging lights, mixed with flowers, stilts." In the old days, the Golden Tower The temple and other places have the Yellow River Lantern Festival, and the scene is also spectacular. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Lantern Festival in the Lantern Festival over the years is better than the past. Prior to the festival, the enterprise and the employees were ligated with colorful doors and hanging lanterns. There are flower lamps, animal lights, eight immortals across the sea lights, and Journey to the West. Some enthusiasts are installed in the lamp to install a miniature motor, which seems to be a horse lamp. The most striking is the golden dragon lanterns of Tengyun's fog, which has a long meter long. At night, the residents of the city and the suburbs flocked, the head was crowded, and the flow of people was like a tide. Wuwei customs, when watching the lights, you must drill from the dragon lanterns, and pray for peace and good words. It is said that the dragon is a mascot. When you drill the dragon lamp, you will be prosperous. The rural lights will be interesting, the colorful lights are plain and elegant, and the local atmosphere is strong. There are torch lamps made of corn core, as well as colorful lights made of yam and radish heads. On the wall and under the horse shed, there are lights everywhere, and the lights are bright. According to historical records: The grand occasion of the Wuwei Lantern Festival has been known since the Tang Dynasty and is famous in Chang'an. Therefore, there is a legend of Tang Xuanzong and Taoist Ye Fashan's night tour of Liangzhou Lantern Festival lingering. The Wuwei Lantern Festival Lantern Festival, regardless of the new and old customs, must be held for 3 days, that is, the 14th, fifteenth, and 16th of the first month.

  ◆二月二的由來

◆ Origin of February 2nd

  古有“二月二龍抬頭”之說。據舊志載:是日城鄉居民以牲醴祀土祈豐年,各家炒豆類和麻籽食之,意示殺蚤滅蟲。如今祀土祈年活動已不存在,鄉間仍有炒麥豆之俗。

In ancient times, there was the saying "February Erlong's head".According to the old Zhizhi: It was the residents of the Japanese urban and rural to worship the soil to pray for the soil.Nowadays, the annual campaign is no longer existed, and there are still customs of fried wheat beans in the countryside.

  ◆清明節的由來

◆ The origin of the Qingming Festival

  清明是農歷時令二十四節氣之一。是日掃墓祭祖,謂之“春祭”。武威城鄉習俗,凡有墳瑩者,須于清明前一、二天到墳上供祭品、燒紙錢、添土;無墳莖的在清明前一日夜間,到郊外或于自家門前、街道巷口燒紙錢。禁忌在清明節當日上墳、燒紙。傳說當日燒的紙錢就成鐵錢,死者不能用。

Qingming is one of the twenty -four solar terms in the lunar calendar.It is a day -to -day grave sacrifice ancestor, which is called the "Spring Festival".Wuwei urban and rural customs, those who have graves must be on the grave for sacrifice, burning paper money, and adding soil one or two days before the Qingming; the day before the day of the Qingming, go to the suburbs or in front of their own door, streets, streets, streets, streetsBurn paper money.On the day of the Qingming Festival, the grave and paper were burned.It is said that the paper money burned on the day became iron money, and the deceased could not use it.

  ◆端午節的由來

◆ The origin of the Dragon Boat Festival

  農歷五月初五為端午節,也稱端陽節。是日清晨,家家戶戶門頭插柳枝,有為屈原招魂和避瘟疫之意。小孩手腕系五色棉線或絲線繩,身佩香囊荷包,并在口、鼻、耳邊涂抹雄黃酒,相傳這樣可以避五毒(即蛇、蝎、壁虎、蟾蜍、蜈蚣)。武威有'五月端午穿出來”的說法,男女青少年身著時興的夏裝,盡情游玩。青年婦女講究繡香草荷包,綴上流蘇,贈送親友。舊時,未出嫁的姑娘將荷包帶在衣襟或系在發辮上,誘人摘取,如不被人摘去,便會自慚貌丑。是日,家家吃粽子或油餅子卷糕,親友間相互饋送。下午,城鄉居民成群結伴,游覽寺廟,舊時游海子,現在海水干涸,廟宇也毀于地震,改游文廟、古鐘樓、雷臺、海藏公園、西郊公園等。小孩到野外攀樹折枝,編制柳帽,以預防暑氣。

On the fifth day of the lunar calendar, the Dragon Boat Festival is also known as the Dragon Festival.In the early morning of the day, the door of the households inserted willow branches, which means Qu Yuan's soul and avoiding plague.The child's wrist is a five -color cotton line or silk rope, the body is wearing a sachet and a puppet, and the rock wine is applied to the mouth, nose, and ears.Wuwei has ' May Dragon Boat Festival "," men and women and teenagers are dressed in the summer dress and enjoy them. Young women pay attention to embroidered vanilla purse, decorate the flowing soveree, and give away relatives and friends.The placket or tie on the braid is seductive. If you are not taken away, you will be ugly. On the day, every family eats rice dumplings or oil cakes, and friends and friends will give each other.The group partners, visiting the temple, traveled to the sea in the old days, the sea water is dry, and the temple is also destroyed by the earthquake.To prevent heat.

  ◆六月六的由來

◆ The origin of June 6

  農歷六月初六,亦稱“曬蟲節”,有“六月六,曬絲綢”的民諺。此日午間晾曬絲、綢、皮、毛等經常不穿的衣物,以防蟲蛀。還有“翻經會”“曬袍會”等,陜西還有放撈河燈和汲水造酒的活動,有的地區還舉行“六月場”活動,青年男女通過對歌、趕表,擲花包形式,尋求戀愛對象。六月六也是布依族和瑤族的重大節日。

On the sixth day of June of the lunar calendar, it is also known as the "Daning Festival".Dry silk, silk, skin, hair, etc. often not worn on this day to prevent insects.There are also "turning meetings" and "robe clubs". Shaanxi also has the activities of loading river lights and water -to -water wine. In some areas, "June field" activities are also held.Floral form, seek love objects.June 6th is also a major festival for the Buyi and Yao people.

  ◆七月七?乞巧節的由來

◆ July 7? The origin of the Qiqiao Festival

  農歷七月初七為“乞巧節”。傳說是牛郎織女鵲橋相會的日子。舊時在這天晚上,姑娘和年輕媳婦們坐在月下穿針,看誰穿得快,穿得多,穿得巧,據說這樣可以把手笨的人練得靈巧。此俗現已不存。唯城內劇團,每年照例上演神話劇《天河配》。四鄉居民蜂擁而至,場場爆滿,至七月下旬停演。

On the seventh day of July of the lunar calendar, the "Qi Qiao Festival".Legend has the day when the Cowherd Weaver Girl Bridge meets.On this night, the girl and the young daughter -in -law sat under the moon to see who wearing fast, wearing too much, and wearing it cleverly. It is said that this can be dexterous to practice stupid people.This custom no longer exists.The drama troupe in the city will stage the mythical drama "Tianhe Match" every year.The residents of the four township flocked, and the venue was full, and the performance was suspended in late July.

  ◆中秋節的由來

◆ The origin of the Mid -Autumn Festival

  農歷八月十五為“中秋節”。是日城鄉居民家家蒸月餅,以示全家團圓。武威人的月餅是發面蒸的,如倒覆的臉盆大,種類繁多,有分層月餅、擰絲月餅、對瓣月餅、桂香俱全,食之爽口。有“八月十五端出來”的俗語,意思是八月已經秋收,食物豐盛。親友之間,互贈月餅,有攀比之意。八月十五晚上,蛟潔的朗月冉冉升起,家家在院內,擺設香案,供上月餅及瓜果等祭品,點蠟燃香,全家圍坐賞月。少許,由主婦切開月餅和西瓜;全家食瓜果、月餅,談笑風生,頗有情趣。相傳祭月神供的西瓜,須剜成鋸齒形的兩個瓣,如家中有孕婦,可數瓜牙數預測男女,奇數生男,偶數生女。

August 15th of the lunar calendar is the "Mid -Autumn Festival".It is the steaming moon cakes of the residents of the Japanese urban and rural residents to show the family reunion.The moon cakes of the Wuwei people are steamed. For example, the upside -down facial basins are large, there are many types, including layered moon cakes, shredded moon cakes, pair of moon cakes, and cinnamon.There is a saying of "coming out of August 15", which means that August has been harvested in August, and the food is abundant.Between relatives and friends, the moon cakes are given to each other, which means comparison.On the evening of August 15th, the Langyue of Jie Jie rose. Every family was in the courtyard, setting up incense cases for sacrifices such as moon cakes and fruits.A little, cut the moon cakes and watermelon by the housewife;According to legend, the watermelon that sacrifice the moon god must be ticked into two sawtooth -shaped. If there are pregnant women in the family, the number of melons can predict men and women.

  ◆冬至節的由來

◆ The origin of the Winter Solstice Festival

  二十四節氣之一。冬至是“交九”的開始,從這天起,白天漸長,夜間漸短各家要吃冬至飯。有的人家吃肉湯面條;有的人家用肉丁、面丁、豆腐、粉條:飯”;也有人家吃“杏皮壇韃子”,也叫“擻耳子”;也有吃羊肉香頭飯或臊子面的民間有壘火堆,放麥草火的習俗。

One of the twenty -four solar terms.The beginning of the winter solstice is the beginning of "Jiu Jiu". From this day, it has gradually grown during the day, and the shortcomings at night have to eat the winter solstice meal.Some people eat meat soup noodles; some people use meat, noodles, tofu, powder strips: rice "; some people eat" apricot peeling altar ", also called" oteita ";Or the folk of the zongzi noodles has the custom of piled up the fire, and the custom of putting wheat grass fire.

  ◆小年的由來

◆ The origin of Xiaonian

  農歷臘月二十三(稱“小年”)送灶神。民間有“臘月二十三,灶爺上了天”的歌謠。是日晚上約八點左右,戶戶提前備灶書<用黃表紙書寫全家人的姓名、生年月日)、灶糖(麥牙糖和豆糖之類)、灶干糧(烙餅)、灶馬(黃表紙上印有備鞍的馬),并備一碟碎麥草,拌幾粒豆,子均供于灶神牌位之前焚燒,意示送灶爺上天庭。民間傳說灶爺為一家之主,臘月二十三上天匯報,臘月三十日晚回府,祭灶是祈求灶爺“上天言好事,回宮降吉祥?!边^了臘月二十三,已接近春節,家家戶戶購置年貨,制作食品菜肴,拆洗衣服,打掃房屋,準備過大年。

Twenty -three lunar lunar lunar month (referred to as "small years") to send stove god.There are ballads with "23rd lunar month, the stove is going to the sky".At about eight o'clock in the evening, the households prepared the stove book in advance

  ◆元旦節的由來

◆ The origin of the New Year's Day

  在歷法上,人們習慣稱地球繞太陽轉1周為1年。但是由于地球繞太陽運轉沒有固定的起點和終點,所以一年的起點和終點都是人為規定的,這就造成了各種歷法的不一致。相傳“元旦”一詞來自我國最早的皇帝之一——顓頊,他規定以農歷正月為“元”,初一為“旦”。后來有的朝代對元旦的日期有所變更,但原則上還是以每年的第一天為元旦,如夏代以正月初一為元旦,但商代以12月初一為元旦,而周代又以11月初一為元旦,秦代以10月初一為元旦。直到西漢武帝時,大歷史學家司馬遷等人重新制定歷法,并規定每年正月初一為元旦,從此歷代不改。

In the calendar, people are used to saying that the earth turns around the sun for 1 week and 1 year.However, because the Earth does not have a fixed start and end point in operation around the sun, the starting point and end of the year are artificially stipulated, which causes the inconsistency of various calendar.According to legend, the word "New Year's Day" comes from one of the earliest emperors in my country -顓頊, he stipulates that the lunar calendar is "Yuan" and the first grade is "Dan".Later, some dynasties changed the date of New Year's Day, but in principle, the first day of each year was New Year's Day. For example, the Xia Dynasty was on the first day of the first month of the first month, but the Shang Dynasty was on the first day of December.The first day of the month is New Year's Day, and the Qin Dynasty was on the first day of October.Until the Western Han Dynasty, the great historian Sima Qian and others re -developed the calendar, and stipulated that the first day of the first month of the first month was New Year's Day.

  ◆五四青年節的由來

◆ The origin of the May 4th Youth Festival

  5月4日是中國青年節。1919年5月4日,以北京大學為主的3000余名學生在天安門前舉行抗議集會,要求“外爭國權、內懲國賊”、“取消21條”,“拒絕和約簽字”爆發了震驚中外的五四運動。為了紀念這一具有歷史意義的日子,1939年陜甘寧邊區青年組織規定,5月4日為中國青年節。中華人民共和國成立以后,中央人民政府政務院1949年12月正式宣布以5月4日為中國青年節。1950年4月共青團中央決定以5月4日作為青年團成立的紀念日。

May 4th is China Youth Day.On May 4, 1919, more than 3,000 students mainly based on Peking University held protest assemblies in front of Tiananmen, requiring "foreign power, internal punishment of national thief", "cancel 21 articles", and "refusing to sign the contract" broke out.China and foreign May 4th movement.In order to commemorate this historic day, the youth organization of Shaanxi -Gansu -Ningxin Border District in 1939 stipulated that May 4th was the Youth Day of China.After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Central People's Government's Government Office officially announced on December 1949 as the China Youth Day on May 4.In April 1950, the Central Committee of the Communist Youth League decided to use May 4 as the anniversary of the Youth League.

  ◆六一兒童節的由來

◆ The origin of Children's Day

  兒童節,也叫“六一國際兒童節”,每年的6月1日舉行,是全世界少年兒童的節日。1949年11月,國際民主婦女聯合會在莫斯科舉行理事會議,中國和各國代表憤怒地揭露了帝國主義分子和各國反動派殘殺、毒害兒童的罪行。為了保障世界各國兒童的生存權、保健權和受教育權,為了改善兒童的生活,會議決定以每年的6月1日為國際兒童節。在此以前,世界上的許多國家就有兒童節。1925年,國際兒童幸福促進會倡議建立兒童紀念日,英國、美國、日本等國積極響應,先后建立了自己國家的兒童節,英國規定每年的7月14日為兒童節,美國規定5月1日為兒童節。日本的兒童節很特殊,分男女兒童節,男兒童節5月5日、女兒童節3月3日。我國在1931年也曾經規定4月4日為中國兒童節。自從1949年確立6月1日為國際兒童節以后,世界各國紛紛廢除原來的兒童節,而統一為“六一國際兒童節”。我國中央政府1949年12月宣布:以“六一國際兒童節”代替原來的“四四兒童節”,并規定少年兒童放假一天。

Children's Day, also known as "Children's Day", is held on June 1 each year. It is a festival for children and children around the world. In November 1949, the International Democratic Women's Federation held a board of directors in Moscow. Representatives of Chinese and countries in Moscow angrily revealed the crimes of murderous murders and poisoning children of imperialists and reactionaries of various countries. In order to ensure the right to survival, health and education of children around the world, in order to improve children's lives, the meeting decided to use June 1 of each year as International Children's Day. Prior to this, many countries in the world had Children's Day. In 1925, the International Children's Happiness Promotion Association advocated the establishment of a children's anniversary. The United Kingdom, the United States, Japan and other countries responded positively and established their own country's children's Day. Day is Children's Day. Children's Day in Japan is very special. my country also stipulated in 1931 to be Chinese Children's Day on April 4. Since the establishment of June 1 in 1949 as the International Children's Day, countries around the world have abolished the original Children's Day, and it was unified to "Children's Day of June 1". The Central Government of my country announced in December 1949 that it replaced the original "Four Fourth Four Children's Day" with "June 1 International Children's Day" and stipulated that children and children had a holiday for one day.

  ◆國際勞動節的由來

◆ Origin of International Labor Day

  19世紀中葉,美國資本主義不斷發生經濟危機,幾萬家工廠倒閉,數百萬工人失業。在業工人的工資不斷下降,而工作時間卻一再延長,最多達到18個小時。因此,1886年5月1日,美國的11500家企業的40余萬名工人規??涨暗拇罅T工,要求實行8小時工作制。罷工在美國和國際工人運動中引起的強烈的反響并最終取得了勝利。1889年7月14日,第二國際在巴黎召開成立大會,通過了一項具有歷史意義的決議:把“五一”定為國際勞動節。于是,5月1日的工人斗爭從美國走向了世界,越來越多的國家相繼加入的紀念“五一”的行列,5月1日成為一個具有國際意義的日子。

In the middle of the 19th century, US capitalism continued to have an economic crisis, tens of thousands of factories closed down, and millions of workers were unemployed.The wages of workers have continued to decline, while working hours have been extended again and again, up to 18 hours.Therefore, on May 1, 1886, the unprecedented strike of more than 400,000 workers in the United States of 1,1500 companies required a 8 -hour working system.The strong response caused by strikes in the US and international workers' movements eventually won.On July 14, 1889, the Second International held a meeting in Paris and passed a historic resolution: the "May Day" was set as the International Labor Day.As a result, the struggle of workers on May 1st went from the United States to the world, and more and more countries joined the ranks of "May Day", which became an international day on May 1.

  ◆“三八”節的由來

◆ The origin of the "March 8" Festival

  1908年3月8日,1500名婦女在紐約市游行,要求縮短工作時間,提高勞動報酬,享有選舉權,禁止使用童工。她們提出的口號是“面包和玫瑰”,面包象征經濟保障,玫瑰象征較好的生活質量。五月,美國社會黨決定以二月的最后一個星期日做為國內的婦女節。

On March 8, 1908, 1,500 women marched in New York City, requiring shortening working hours, increasing labor remuneration, enjoying the right to election, and prohibiting the use of children's workers.The slogans they put forward are "bread and roses". Bread symbolizes economic protection. Rose symbolizes better quality of life.In May, the American Socialist Party decided to use the last Sunday of February as a domestic Women's Day.

  ◆父親節的由來

◆ The origin of Father's Day

  父親節是由美國人約翰?布魯斯?多德夫人倡議建立的。多德夫人早年喪母,她有5個弟弟,姐弟6人的生活負擔全落到了父親身上。父親每天起早貪黑,無微不至地關心著孩子們的成長,既當父親又當母親,自己則過著節衣縮食的節儉日子。多德切身體會到父親的關愛,感受到父親的善良與偉大。她長大后,深感父親這種自我犧牲的精神應該得到表彰,做父親的也應該像母親們那樣,有一個讓全社會向他們表示敬意的節日。于是,她給華盛頓州政府寫了一封言辭懇切的信,建議以她父親的生日,每年的6月5日作為父親節。州政府被她的真情打動,便采納了這一建議,只是把日期改在每年6月的第三個星期日。1972年,在各方的強烈呼吁下,美國總統尼克松簽署了建立父親節的議會決議,使其成為全國性的節目。目前,這個節日受到東西方世界許多國家百姓的認同。每到這一天,子女們總是向辛勞的父親致以敬意。今天父親節的慶祝方式和母親節大致相同,所不同的也許只是父親們喜愛的禮物不是糖果而是雪茄。

Father's Day was initiated by the Americans John Bruce Doddon. Mrs. Dodd lost her mother in her early years. She had 5 younger brothers, and the living burden of 6 sisters and brothers fell on her father. The father is greedy and black every day, and he cares for the growth of the children meticulous. He is not only a father and a mother, and he lives a frugal life of clothing and shrinking food. Dodd's personal experience to his father's care and feel his father's kindness and greatness. When she grew up, she felt that her father's self -sacrifice spirit should be commended, and her father should also have a festival to respect them to them like mothers. Therefore, she wrote a sincere letter to the Washington government, suggesting that her father's birthday was recommended for Father's Day on June 5th each year. The state government was moved by her true feelings, and she adopted this suggestion, but changed the date to the third Sunday of June each year. In 1972, under the strong appeal of all parties, US President Nixon signed a decision to establish a Father's Day to make it a national program. At present, this festival is recognized by many people in the East and West worlds. On this day, the children always pay tribute to the hard -working father. Today's Father's Day celebration method is roughly the same as Mother's Day. Maybe the different gifts that the father loves are not candy but cigars.

  ◆母親節的由來

◆ The origin of Mother's Day

  規定一個專門的日子來表達人們對母親的尊敬,并不是現代的發明,而是一個非常古老的習俗。古希臘入曾在樹林或山洞中舉行儀式,對女神——神的母親頂禮膜拜。到古羅馬時,這些活動的規模就變得更大,慶祝盛況往往持續達三天之久。當然,古時人們對女神的崇拜只不過是一種迷信,它同今天人們對母性的尊敬是大不相同的。美國的母親節,始于1907年5月。要求定立母親節這一倡儀是費城安娜?賈維斯提出的。母親節創立人是安娜?賈維斯。據說,美國南北戰爭結束以后,安娜?賈維斯的母親,當時是美國格拉夫頓城教會學校的總監,并兼職在教堂講述美國國殤紀念日的課程。當講述到在戰役中英雄捐軀的故事時,她不禁感慨萬分,認為應該給予失去兒子的母親們一種慰藉、一個紀念日。同時也衷心希望有人會創立一個母親節來贊揚全世界的母親,她的想法得到越來越多的人的認可。安娜?賈維斯的母親死后,她繼承了母親所遺給她的一筆龐大的財產,不過她為失母感到格外悲痛,立志要實現母親的愿望,創立母親節,借以紀念世上所有的母親們,同時提倡孝道等。為此她向社會發出呼吁,結果她獲得各方面熱烈的支持和良好的反應,并紛紛邀請她前往演講。1912年,美國專門成立了母親節國際協會。1913年5月,美國眾議院一致通過決議,號召總統以及內閣、參眾兩院和聯邦政府的一切官員一律在母親節佩戴白色石竹花。1914年,美國國會正式命名5月的第二個星期日為母親節,并要求總統發布宣言,號召政府官員在所有的公共建筑物上懸掛國旗。在胸前佩戴石竹花,顏色是有講究的。那些母親已經去世的人仍然佩戴白色石竹花,而母親健在的人則佩戴紅色石竹花。這一天,人們總要想方設法使母親愉快地度過節日,感謝和補償她們一年的辛勤勞動。最普通的方式是向母親贈送母親節卡片和禮物。節日里,每個母親都會滿懷喜悅的心情,接受孩子們和丈夫贈送的玫瑰花或其他花束、糖果、書和紀念品,特別是當她們收到小孩子們自己動手制作的上面用蠟筆稚氣地寫著“媽媽,我愛你”的字樣的卡片時,更會感到格外自豪和欣慰。但最珍貴、最優厚的禮物還是把她們從日常的家務勞動中解放出來,輕松地休息一整天。這一天,許多家庭都由丈夫和孩子們把全部家務活包下來,母親不必做飯,不必洗盤刷碗,也不必洗衣服。不少家庭還有侍候母親在床上吃早飯的慣例。

It is stipulated that a special day to express people's respect for mothers is not a modern invention, but a very old custom. Ancient Greece entered a ritual in the woods or caves to worship the goddess -God's mother. By the time of ancient Rome, the scale of these activities became larger, and the celebration grand occasion often lasted for three days. Of course, the worship of the goddess in ancient times was just a superstition. It was very different from today's respect for motherhood. Mother's Day in the United States began in May 1907. The promotional instrument of Dingli Mother's Day was proposed by Philadelphia Anna Jarvis. The founder of Mother's Day is Anna Javis. It is said that after the Northern and South War of the United States ended, Anna Jarvis's mother was the director of the Graphon City Church School in the United States, and worked part -time to tell the courses of the American National Memorial Day in the church. When telling the story of her heroes in the battle, she couldn't help feeling that she should be given a comfort and a memorial day. At the same time, I also sincerely hope that someone will create a Mother's Day to praise the mother of the world. Her ideas are recognized by more and more people. After Anna Jarvis's mother died, she inherited a huge property made by her mother, but she felt particularly sad for her mother's desire to realize her mother's wishes and created Mother's Day to commemorate all the world in the world. Mothers, while advocating filial piety. For this reason, she made an appeal to the society, and as a result, she received warm support and good response in all aspects, and invited her to give a speech. In 1912, the United States specially established the Mother's Day International Association. In May 1913, the House of Representatives of the United States passed the decision to call on the president, as well as all officials of the Cabinet, the House of Representatives, and the federal government. In 1914, the U.S. Congress officially named the second Sunday of May as Mother's Day, and asked the president to issue declarations calling on government officials to hang the national flag on all public buildings. Wearing stone bamboo flowers on your chest, the color is particular. Those who have died in their mothers still wear white stone bamboo flowers, while those who are healthy in their mother wear red stone bamboo flowers. On this day, people always try to make their mother happy to spend the festival happily, thank and compensate for their hard work for a year. The most common way is to give mothers to mother's day cards and gifts. During the festival, every mother will be full of joy, accepting roses or other bouquets, candy, books and souvenirs presented by children and husbands, especially when they receive the children's own hand -made crasmate in crayons. When the card of "Mom, I love you", I feel more proud and gratifying. But the most precious and best gifts are still liberated from daily housework and easy rest for a whole day. On this day, many families are working on all the housework by her husband and children. Many families also have the practice of eating breakfast in bed.

  ◆植樹節的由來

◆ The origin of the tree planting festival

  “植樹節”是一些國家為激發人們愛林、造林的感情,促進國土綠化,保護人類賴以生存的生態環境,通過立法確定的節日。近代最早設立植樹節的是美國的內布拉斯加州。1872年4月10日,莫頓在內布拉斯加州園林協會舉行的一次會議上,提出了設立重視節的建議。該州采納了莫頓的建議,把4月10日定為該州的植樹節,并于1932年發行世界上首枚植樹節郵票,畫面為兩個兒童在植樹。1979年2月,中國五屆人大常委會第六次會議決定,將每年的3月12 日定為中國的植樹節。次年3月12日,郵電部發行了一套4枚題為“植樹造林,綠化祖國”的郵票。1981年,在鄧小平同志的倡議下,五屆人大第四次會議通過了《關于開展全民義務植樹運動的決議》。1990年3月12日,郵電部又發行了一套4枚“綠化祖國”郵票,第一枚為“全民義務植樹”。

The "Tree Planting Festival" is a festival that stimulates people's love for forests and afforestation, promote the greening of the land, and protects the living environment that humans depend on survival, and determine festivals determined by legislation.The earliest establishment of the tree planting festival in modern times was Nebraska in the United States.On April 10, 1872, Morton put forward suggestions for the establishment of the festival at a meeting held at the Nebraska Garden Association.The state adopted Morton's suggestion to set April 10 as the state's tree planting festival, and released the world's first tree planting stamp in 1932. The picture is two children in planting trees.In February 1979, the sixth session of the Standing Committee of the Fifth National People's Congress decided that March 12 each year was set as the tree planting festival in China.On March 12 of the following year, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications issued a set of 4 stamps entitled "Planting Trees and Creating, Greening Motherland".In 1981, under the initiative of Comrade Deng Xiaoping, the Fourth Session of the Fifth National People's Congress approved the "Resolution on the Obligations of the All -People".On March 12, 1990, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications issued another set of 4 "green motherland" stamps, the first for "the whole people's volunteer trees".

  ◆國際護士節的由來

◆ Origin of International Nurse Festival

  每年的5月12日,是國際護士節。這是為了紀念近代護理學科創始人南丁格爾(1820~1910)而設立的。在1852年到1856年間,沙皇俄國與土耳其之間發生在克里米亞的戰爭十分殘酷,雙方傷亡慘重,大量的傷病員無人照顧。當時。英國有一位具有醫學專業知識的女士名叫南丁格爾,她自愿組織戰地救護隊,率領38名女救護隊員負責傷病員的護理,在她的領導下,建立了醫院管理制度,提高了護理質量,使傷病員死亡率迅速下降。1860年,她又在英國的圣多馬醫院辦起世界上第一所護士學校,為推動世界各國護理工作和發展護士教育,作出了巨大的貢獻。為了紀念這位近代護理學家護士教育的創始人,弘揚南丁格爾對病患如同“老人的兒女,同志的手足,孩子的媽媽”的獻身精神,國際上把她的生日--5月12日定為國際護士節。

On May 12, each year is the International Nursing Festival.This was established to commemorate the founder of modern nursing disciplines Nantingle (1820 ~ 1910).Between 1852 and 1856, the war between Crimea between Tsar and Russia and Turkey was very cruel, the two sides were seriously casualties, and a large number of wounded people were not taken care of.then.There is a lady with medical professional knowledge in the UK named Nightingle. She voluntarily organizes the battlefield ambulance team and led 38 female ambulance members to be responsible for the nursing of the injured. Under her leadershipThe quality of nursing has dropped the mortality rate of wounded patients rapidly.In 1860, she held the world's first nursing school in San Doma Hospital in the UK to make great contributions to promoting nursing work and development of nurses in the world.In order to commemorate the founder of this modern nursing scientist and nurse education, it promotes the spirit of Nanginger's dedication to patients like "the children of the elderly, the hands and feet of the comrades, and the child's mother".The 12th is the International Nursing Festival.

  ◆情人節的由來

◆ The origin of Valentine's Day

  版本1:Valentine’s day是情人節在英語里的叫法。從字面上來看,很難看出中西方叫法之間有什么聯系。這里面隱藏著一個動人的故事。大約在公元3世紀的羅馬,那時愷撒已經死去快三百年了,暴君Claudius當政。當時,羅馬內外戰爭頻仍,民不聊生。為了補足兵員,將戰爭進行到底,Claudius下令,凡是一定年齡范圍內的男子,都必須參加羅馬軍隊,以生命為國家效勞。自此,丈夫離開妻子,少年離開戀人。于是整個羅馬便被籠罩在綿長的相思中。對此,暴君大為惱火。為了達到自己的目的,他竟然下令禁止國人舉行結婚典禮,甚至要求已經結婚的毀掉婚約。然而,暴政禁止不了愛情。就在暴君的國都里,居住著一位德高望重的修士,他就是Valentine我們的主人公。他不忍看到一對對伴侶就這樣生離死別,于是為前來請求幫助的情侶秘密地主持上帝的結婚典禮。一時間,這一令人振奮的消息在整個國度傳開,更多的情侶秘密地趕來請求修士的幫助。但是,事情很快還是被暴君知曉了,于是他再一次顯示了殘暴面目——將修士打進大牢,最終折磨致死。修士死的那一天是2月14日,公元270年的2月14日。人們為了紀念這個敢于與暴君斗爭的人,漸漸地使得2月14日成為一個節日。很多世紀過去了,人們再也記不得Claudius的大名,再也記不得他的權杖與寶劍,但依然會紀念Valentine修士,因為那個日子是Valentine’s day是情人節。版本2:在古羅馬時期,2月14日是為表示對約娜的尊敬而設的節日。約娜是羅馬眾神的皇后,羅馬人同時將她尊奉為婦女和婚姻之神。接下來的2月15日則被稱為“盧帕撒拉節”,是用來對約娜治下的其他眾神表示尊敬的節日。在古羅馬,小伙子和少女的生活是被嚴格分開的。然而,在盧帕撒拉節,小伙子們可以選擇一個自己心愛的姑娘的名字刻在花瓶上。這樣,過節的時候,小伙子就可以與自己選擇的姑娘一起跳舞,慶祝節日。如果被選中的姑娘也對小伙子有意的話,他們便可一直配對,而且最終他們會墜入愛河并一起步入教堂結婚。后人為此而將每年的2月14日定為情人節。版本3:一本英語辭典上注釋說,范泰倫節(情人節)2月14日,來源于古羅馬的牧神節。據說鳥類在這一天開始交配。那時的風俗是:在牧神節期間,每個青年男子從一只盒子里抽簽,盒子里放的是寫有青年女子姓名的條子。抽到誰,誰就成為那個青年男子的心上人。后來這個節日改為紀念一位叫瓦倫丁的基督教圣徒。古羅馬青年基督教傳教士圣瓦倫丁,冒險傳播基督教義,被捕入獄,感動了老獄吏和他雙目失明的女兒,得到了他們悉心照料。臨刑前圣瓦倫丁給姑娘寫了封信,表明了對姑娘的深情。在他被處死的當天,盲女在他墓前種了一棵開紅花的杏樹,以寄托自己的情思。這一天就是2月14日?,F在,在情人節里,許多小伙子還把求愛的圣瓦倫丁的明信片做成精美的工藝品,剪成蝴蝶和鮮花,以表示心誠志堅。姑娘們晚上將月桂樹葉放在枕頭上,希望夢見自己的情人。通常在情人節中,以贈送一枝紅玫瑰來表達情人之間的感情。將一枝半開的紅玫瑰作為情人節送給女孩的最佳禮物,而姑娘則以一盒心形巧克力作為回贈的禮物。據說,巧克力成份之一苯基胺能引起人體內荷爾蒙的變化,跟熱戀中的感覺相似。

Version 1: Valentine ’s Day is the name of Valentine's Day in English. Literally, it is difficult to see what connections between Chinese and Western calls. A moving story is hidden. About Rome in the 3rd century AD, Caesar had been dead for almost three hundred years, and tyrant Claudius became politically. At that time, the war inside and outside the Rome was frequent, and the people were not talking. In order to make up for the soldiers, the war to the end, Claudius ordered that all men within a certain age range must participate in the Roman army and serve the country as the country. Since then, her husband has left his wife, and the teenager leaves a lover. So Rome was shrouded in long acacia. In this regard, the tyrant was annoyed. In order to achieve his own purpose, he ordered the ban on the marriage ceremony of the Chinese people, and even asked to destroy the marriage contract. However, the tyranny cannot be forbidden. In the national capital of the tyrant, a highly respected monk lived in Valentine's hero. He couldn't bear to see a pair of partners who lived away from each other, so he secretly hosted God's wedding ceremony for the couple who came to ask for help. For a while, this exciting news spread throughout the country, and more couples secretly came to ask the monk's help. However, the incident was soon known by the tyrant, so he once again showed the brutal face -put the monk into the jail, and finally tortured to death. The day of the monk died was February 14, February 14, 270. In order to commemorate this person who dares to fight the tyrant, it gradually makes February 14th a festival. Many centuries have passed, and people can no longer remember Claudius's name, and they can no longer remember his scepter and sword, but they still commemorate Valentine, because that day was Valentine ’s Day. Version 2: During the ancient Rome period, February 14 was a festival to show Jona. Jona is the queen of the Roman gods, and the Romans also respect her as the god of women and marriage. The next February 15th is called the "Lumahara Festival", which is a holiday used to show respect for other gods under Jona. In ancient Rome, the lives of young men and girls were strictly separated. However, at the Luxara Festival, the guys can choose the name of a beloved girl on the vase. In this way, during the festival, the young man can dance with the girl he chose to celebrate the festival. If the selected girl is also intentionally interested in the young man, they can always match, and in the end they will fall into the love river and enter the church together to get married. Later generations set February 14 every year as Valentine's Day. Version 3: A comment at a English dictionary says that Van Tailun Festival (Valentine's Day) February 14th is derived from the ancient Roman pastoral festival. It is said that birds began to mate on this day. At that time, the custom was: During the Shepherd Festival, each young man was drawn from a box, and the box was written in the box. Whoever gets to who becomes the heart of the young man. Later, the festival was changed to commemorate a Christian saints named Valentine. The ancient Roman young Christian missionary San Valentin adventure spread Christianism and was arrested and imprisoned. The old prison officials and his blind daughters were moved and got their careful care. Before the sentence, St. Valentin wrote a letter to the girl, showing the affection for the girl. On the day he was executed, the blind woman planted a red flower apricot tree in front of his tomb to pin his affection. This day is February 14. Now, on Valentine's Day, many young guys also make the postcays of San Valentin who are asking for love, cut them into butterflies and flowers to express their sincerity. The girls put the leaf on the pillow at night, hoping to dream of their lover. Usually on Valentine's Day, it is given a red rose to express the feelings between the lover. The semi -open red rose is the best gift to the girl on Valentine's Day, and the girl is a gift from a box of heart -shaped chocolate as a gift. It is said that one of the chocolate components can cause changes in hormones in the human body, which is similar to the feeling in love.

  ◆愚人節的由來

◆ Origin of April Fool's Day

  每年4月1日,可能會有人給你開一個善意的玩笑,發一個假信息,讓你上一次當。那是因為這天是西方民間傳統的節日——愚人節。愚人節起源于法國,與歷法改革有關系。1564年,法國首先采用新改革的紀年法——格里歷(即目前通用的陽歷),以1月1日為一年之始。但一些因循守舊的人反對這種改革,依然按照舊歷固執地在4月1日這一天送禮品慶祝新年。主張改革的人對這些守舊者的做法大加嘲弄。聰明滑稽的人就給他們送假禮品,邀請他們參加假招待會,并把上當受騙的保守分子稱為“四月傻瓜”和“上鉤的魚”。從此人們在4月1日便互相愚弄,成為法國流行的風俗。愚人節時,人們常常組織家庭聚會,用水仙花和雛菊將房間裝飾一新。典型的做法是布置假環境,可以把房間布置得像過圣誕節一樣,也可以布置得像過新年一樣,在客人到來時,則祝賀他們“圣誕快樂”和“新年快樂”,令人感到別致有趣。4月1日的魚宴也是別開生面的。參加宴會的請帖,通常是用紙板做成的彩色小魚。餐桌用綠、白兩色裝飾起來,中間放上魚缸和小巧玲瓏的釣魚竿,每個釣竿上系上一條綠色飄帶,掛著送給客人的禮物——一個精巧的賽璐珞魚,或是一個裝滿糖果的魚形盒子。不言而喻,魚宴上所有的菜都是用魚做成的。不過愚人節最典型的活動還是大家互相開玩笑,用假話捉弄對方。

On April 1st every year, someone may have a good joke for you, send a fake information to let you be a last time. That's because this day is the Western folk traditional festival -April Fool's Day. April Fool's Day originated in France and has something to do with the reform of the calendar. In 1564, France first adopted the new reform of the new reform -the Giri calendar (that is, the current geoptypical calendar), which was from January 1st as one year. However, some people who follow the old man oppose this kind of reform and still give gifts to the New Year on April 1 on April 1 on April 1. Those who advocate reforms are greatly ridiculed by these old -fashioned practices. Smart and funny people gave them fake gifts, invited them to participate in the fake enrollment, and referred to the deceived conservatives as "April Fools" and "hooked fish". Since then, people have fooled each other on April 1 and become a popular custom in France. On April Fools' Day, people often organize family gatherings to decorate the room with narcissus flowers and daisies. The typical approach is to arrange the fake environment. It can be arranged like Christmas, or it can be arranged like a New Year. When guests come, congratulate them "Happy Christmas" and "Happy New Year". interesting. The fish banquet on April 1 is also unique. The invitation to the banquet is usually a colorful fish made of cardboard. The dining table is decorated with green and white, and the fish tank and small and exquisite fishing rod are placed in the middle. Each fishing rod is tied with a green ribbon, a gift to the guests -a delicate cellulite fish, or a full one filled Candy fish -shaped box. It is self -evident that all the dishes at the fish banquet are made of fish. However, the most typical event of April Fool's Day is everyone joking with each other and teased each other in a falsehood.

  二、習俗類

2. Customs

  ◆“壓歲錢”的由來

◆ The origin of "New Year's Money"

  春節拜年,一般是按輩數大小互相拜的。晚輩要給長輩拜年,長輩要給拜年的兒童“壓歲錢”。壓歲錢,相傳是由宋代的“壓歲盤”演變而來的。據說,在歷史上,舊俗除夕夜,各家有小兒女者,用盤、盒等器具,盛果品食物,互相贈送,這就是“壓歲盤”。后來,“壓歲錢”取代了“壓歲盤”,這就是現在付給壓歲錢的方式。清代,壓歲錢帶上了去邪、祈福的成分,《燕京歲時記?壓歲錢》記載:“以彩繩穿錢,編作龍形,置于床腳,謂之壓歲錢,尊長賜小兒者,亦謂之壓歲錢?!边@里,是指帶方孔的銅制錢。自紙幣代替金屬制錢以來,便改用紅紙包封之以示吉利。清代曾有人寫詩描繪了兒童得到壓歲錢時的喜悅心情:“百十錢穿彩線長,分來角枕自收藏,商量爆竹錫蕭價,添得嬌兒一夜忙?!?/p>

The New Year's New Year is usually worshiped by each other.The juniors want to give the elders a New Year, and the elders have to "make the New Year's money" for children who worship the New Year.The New Year's money has evolved from the Song Dynasty's "yearning".It is said that in history, the old customs have children, and each family has children, using plates, boxes and other appliances, fruits and foods, and presented each other.Later, the "New Year's Money" replaced the "year -old market", which is the way to pay for the New Year's money now.In the Qing Dynasty, the New Year's money brought the ingredients of going to evil and praying., Also known as the New Year's money. "Here, it refers to the copper money with square holes.Since the banknote replaces metal money, it has been packed with red paper to show auspiciousness.Someone in the Qing Dynasty wrote poems to depict the joy of children when they got the New Year's money: "The colorful lines are long, and the corner pillow is collected from the corner pillow.

  ◆放爆竹的由來

◆ The origin of the firecrackers

  這個習俗在我國已有兩千多年的歷史了?!肚G楚歲時記》曾經這樣記載,正月初一,雞叫頭一遍時,大家就紛紛起床,在自家院子里放爆竹,來逐退瘟神惡鬼。當時沒有火藥,沒有紙張,人們便用火燒竹子,使之爆裂發聲,以驅逐瘟神。這當然是迷信,但卻反映了古代勞動人民渴求安泰的美好愿望。因為最初的爆仗是燒竹子,故稱“爆竹”,一直沿用至今。唐朝把它稱為“爆竿”,后來也稱為“炮仗”。南昌詩人來鵠的《早春》詩句:“新歷才將半紙開,小亭猶聚爆竿灰?!睂懙木褪钱敃r春節燃燒竹竿的情景。后來,煉丹家經過不斷的化學試驗,發現硝石、硫黃和木炭合在一起能引起燃燒和爆炸,于是發明了火藥。有人將火藥裝在竹筒里燃放,聲音更大,使得火燒竹子這一古老習俗發生了根本變化。北宋時,民間已經出現了用卷紙裹著火藥的燃放物,還有單響和雙響的區別,改名“爆仗”,后又改為“鞭炮”。爆竹很快成為一種驅害避邪的神物。燃放爆竹,除了在新年到來之前希望邪去福來,祈求保佑一年平安如意,人們還用來志賀婚禮、開業以及重大的慶?;顒?。

This custom has a history of more than two thousand years in my country. "Jing Chu Shi Ji Ji" once recorded this. On the first day of the first month, when the chickens were called, everyone got up and put firecrackers in their yard to retire the evil spirits. At that time, there were no medicines and no paper, and people burned bamboo with fire to make it burst to expel the plague god. This is of course superstitious, but it reflects the good wishes of the ancient labor people who are desperate for Antai. Because the initial explosion was burning bamboo, it was called "firecracker", which has been in use to this day. The Tang Dynasty called it "explosive pole" and later also called "artillery". Nanchang poet's "Early Spring" verses: "The new calendar will open the half paper, and the small pavilion will still gathered." Later, after continuous chemical tests, the alchemist found that the combination of nitrate, sulfur and charcoal could cause burning and explosion, so the gunpowder was invented. Some people put the medicinal medicine in the bamboo tube, and the sound was louder, which made the ancient custom of burning bamboo in the fire. During the Northern Song Dynasty, the folks had appeared in the place where rolls were wrapped in gunpowder, and there was a difference between single sounds and doubles. It was renamed "explosion" and then changed to "firecrackers". The firecrackers quickly became a kind of deed to avoid evil. In addition to hoping to go to blessing before the New Year comes, praying for a year of peace and wishfulness, people also use to have a wedding, opening and major celebrations.

  ◆過生日吹蠟燭的由來

◆ The origin of blowing candles on birthday

  過生日吃蛋糕吹蠟燭已為人們熟悉,這一習俗據說源于希臘。在古希臘,人們都信奉月亮女神阿耳特彌斯。在她的一年一度的生日慶典上,人們總要在祭壇上供放蜂蜜餅和很多點亮著的蠟燭,形成一片神圣的氣氛,以示他們對月亮女神的特殊的崇敬之情。后來,隨著時間的推移,由于疼愛孩子,古希臘人在慶祝他們的孩子的生日時,也總愛在餐桌上擺上糕餅等物,而在上面,又放上很多點亮的小蠟燭,并且加進一項新的活動——吹滅這些燃亮的蠟燭。他們相信燃亮著的蠟燭具有神秘的力量,如果這時讓過生日的孩子在心中許下一個愿望,然后一口氣吹滅所有蠟燭的話,那么這個孩子的美好愿望就一定能夠實現。于是吹蠟燭成為生日宴上有著吉慶意義的小節目,以后逐漸地發展到不論是在孩子還是成年人甚至老年人的生日晚會或宴會上都有吹蠟燭這個有趣的活動。

Eating cakes to blow candles on a birthday is familiar with people. This custom is said to originate from Greece. In ancient Greece, people believed in the Moon Goddess Ademis. At her annual birthday celebration, people always provide honey cakes and many candles on the altar to form a sacred atmosphere to show their special respect for the moon goddess. Later, over time, due to love for children, the ancient Greeks always loved to put pastry and other things on the table when celebrating their children's birthday, and put a lot of light candles on it. And add a new activity -blow out these bright candles. They believe that the brightening candles have mysterious power. If the children who have a birthday at this time make a wish in their hearts, and then blow out all the candles in one breath, then the child's good wishes will definitely be realized. So blowing candles became a small show at the birthday banquet, and it gradually developed to the birthday party or banquet at the birthday party or banquet of children, adults, or even elderly people in the future.

  ◆過生日吃長壽面的由來

◆ Eat the origin of longevity noodles on birthday

  民間有生日吃壽面的習俗,其由來可有漫長的歷史了。這個習俗源于西漢年間。相傳,漢武帝崇信鬼神又相信相術。一天與眾大臣聊天,說到人的壽命長短時,漢武帝說:《相書》上講,人的人中長,壽命就長,若人中1寸長,就可以活到100歲?!弊跐h武帝身邊的大臣東方朔聽后就大笑了起來,眾大臣莫名其妙,都怪他對皇帝無禮。漢武帝問他笑什么,東方朔解釋說:“我不是笑陛下,而是笑彭祖。人活100歲,人中1寸長,彭祖活了800歲,他的人中就長8寸,那他的臉有多長啊?!北娙寺勚泊笮ζ饋?,看來想長壽,靠臉長長點是不可能的,但可以想個變通的辦法表達一下自己長壽的愿望。臉即面,那“臉長即面長”,于是人們就借用長長的面條來祝福長壽。漸漸地,這種做法又演化為生日吃面條的習慣,稱之為吃“長壽面”。這一習俗一直沿襲至今。

The folk has the custom of eating noodles on birthdays, and its origin can have a long history. This custom originated from the Western Han Dynasty. According to legend, Emperor Hanwu believed in ghosts and gods also believed in the Xiangshu. When talking with the ministers a day, when it comes to the length of life, Emperor Hanwu said: In the "Book of Books", people are long and have a long life. If they are 1 inches long, they can live to 100 years old. "The minister sitting beside Emperor Hanwu laughed after hearing it. The ministers were inexplicable and blame him for being rude to the emperor. Emperor Hanwu asked him what he laughed. Essence People live 100 years old, 1 inch of people, Peng Zu lived 800 years old, and 8 inches of his people. How long is his face. "Everyone laughed. It seemed that it was impossible to have a long face, but it was impossible to rely on the face length, but you could think of a way to express your longevity. The face is right, and the" face is long and long ". So people borrow long noodles to bless longevity. Gradually, this approach has evolved into the habit of eating noodles on birthdays, which is called "longevity noodles". This custom has always been struggling to this day.

  ◆“抓周兒”的由來

◆ The origin of "catch Zhouer"

  抓周兒的儀式一般都在吃中午那頓“長壽面”之前進行。講究一些的富戶都要在床(炕)前陳設大案,上擺:印章、儒釋道三教的經書、筆、墨、紙、硯、算盤、錢幣、賬冊、首飾、花朵、胭脂、吃食、玩具。如是女孩“抓周兒”還要加擺:鏟子、勺子(炊具)、剪子、尺子(縫紉用具)、繡線、花樣子(刺繡用具)等等。一般人家,限于經濟條件,多予簡化,僅由大人將小孩抱來,令其端坐,不予任何誘導,任其挑選,視其先抓何物,后抓何物。以此來測卜其志趣、前途和將要從事的職業。據史書記載,此風俗興于魏晉南北朝?!额伿霞矣?風操》有述:“江南風俗,兒生一期為制新衣,盥浴裝飾,男則用弓矢紙筆,女則用刀尺針縷,并加飲食之物及珍寶服玩,置之兒前,觀其發意所取,以驗貪廉智愚,名之為試兒?!碧扑螘r期,抓周兒這一風俗已很流行,民間十分重視,儀式也很隆重?!秹袅讳?育子》篇中有關南宋時杭州風俗說:“至來歲得周,名曰'周日卒’,其家羅列錦席于中堂,燒香秉燭,頓果兒飲食,及父祖誥敕、金銀七寶玩具、文房書籍、道釋經卷、秤尺刀剪、升斗等子、彩段花朵、官楮錢陌、女工針線、應用物件、并兒戲物,卻置得周小兒于中座,觀其先拈者何物,以為佳文件,謂之'拈周試嘩’?!?/p>

The ceremony of catching Zhouer is generally carried out before the "longevity noodles" at noon. Some wealthy households have to set up major cases in front of the bed (炕), and put on top: scriptures, strokes, inks, paper, 算, abacus, ledger, jewelry, flowers, rouge, rouge, rouge, rouge, rouge, and rouge. Eat, toys. If the girl "catch Zhouer", add shovel, spoon (cooking utensils), scissors, ruler (sewing appliances), embroidery thread, flower look (embroidery appliance) and so on. Most people are limited to economic conditions, which are more simplified. Only adults will hold children, so that they will sit without any induction, let them choose, depend on what they seize first, and then grasp. In this way, to measure the aspirations, future, and occupations to be engaged in. According to historical records, this custom is prosperous in the Wei, Jin, and Northern and Southern Dynasties. "Yan's Family Training? Wind and Culture" has: "Jiangnan custom, the first phase of the child is made of new clothes, the bath is decorated, the male uses a bow of the gongsha paper, the woman uses a knife script, and the diet and the treasure Before you play, before you put it, you can observe what he gives, to test the greed, integrity and foolishness, and name it. "During the Tang and Song dynasties, the custom of catching Zhouer was very popular, the folk attached great importance to it, and the ceremony was very grand. Essence "Menglianglu? Yuzi" said about the customs of Hangzhou during the Southern Song Dynasty: "The coming year is coming, the name is ' And his ancestor ancestors, gold and silver Qibao toys, literary books, Dao Shi Jing rolls, scales, scratch cutting, littering flowers, official Qian Mo, female workers, application objects, and drama, but set up, but set up You have to be in the middle of the seat, watch the first person, think of the good file, which is called '

  ◆喝交杯酒的由來

◆ Drink the origin of handing glass

  提起交杯酒,大家都不陌生,因為婚禮時這是個十分常見的節目。據傳,這一習俗源于先秦時期?!抖Y記?昏羲》載:新郎、新娘各執一片一剖為二的瓢飲酒。其意是象征一對新人自此合二為一,夫妻間享有相同的地位,婚后相親相愛,百事和諧。到了唐代,除了沿用瓢作酒器外,亦可以杯替代。到了宋代,新婚夫婦喝交杯酒時用的是兩個酒杯,先飲一半后再換杯共飲,飲完后則將酒杯一正一反擲于床下,以示婚后百年合好。清末的時候,交杯酒儀式已發展成為“合巹”、“交杯”、“攥金錢”三個部分。今天的婚儀中,“安杯于床下”之禮已被革除,“攥金錢”則為“擲紙花”所代替,惟“交杯酒”之禮儀仍然實行,為婚禮平添了喜慶的氣氛。

When it comes to making a glass of wine, everyone is no stranger, because this is a very common show during the wedding.According to rumors, this custom stems from the pre -Qin period."Book of Rites? Flying" contains: the groom and the bride hold each other to drink one by one.Its meaning is to symbolize a pair of newcomers into one. The husband and wife have the same status.In the Tang Dynasty, in addition to being used as a wine device, it can also be replaced.In the Song Dynasty, the newlywed couple used two wine glasses when drinking a glass of wine. After drinking half of them, they changed the cup to drink together.During the late Qing Dynasty, the ceremony of handing over the wine has developed into three parts: "Heye", "Dating Cup" and "Holding Money".In today's wedding instrument, the ceremony of "Ann Cup under the bed" has been dismissed, and "money" is replaced by "throwing paper flowers", but the etiquette of "handing the cup wine" is still implemented, adding a festive atmosphere to the wedding.

  ◆握手的由來

◆ The origin of shaking hands

  握手最早發生在人類“刀耕火種”的年代。那時,在狩獵和戰爭時,人們手上經常拿著石塊或棍棒等武器。他們遇見陌生人時,如果大家都無惡意,就要放下手中的東西,并伸開手掌,讓對方撫摸手掌心,表示手中沒有藏武器。這種習慣逐漸演變成今天的“握手”禮節。

Handshake first occurred in the age of human "sword farming".At that time, when hunting and war, people often held weapons such as stones or sticks.When they met strangers, if everyone was not malicious, they had to put down the things in their hands, and stretched out their palms to let the other party stroke their palms, saying that there were no hidden weapons in their hands.This habit has gradually evolved into today's "handshake" etiquette.

  ◆鬧洞房的由來

◆ Origin of the Hosting House

  中國傳統婚姻以其禮儀的隆重和場面的鋪陳而頗具特色。它通常要經過提、訂婚、迎娶出嫁、鬧房等“程序”;其中以新婚當夜眾親友在洞房嬉鬧新娘和新郎后,新人雙雙攜手歸寢為一高潮。舊時,此中滋生出一些乖情悖理的舉動,因多發生在洞房里,故稱為“鬧房”、“鬧洞房”、“鬧新房”;由于這一習俗以新娘為主要逗趣對象,故又稱“鬧新娘”、“耍新娘”,舊時還稱為“戲婦”。關于鬧房習俗的來歷,我國民間有兩種說法。一說源于驅邪避災。相傳,很早以前紫微星一日下凡,在路上遇到一個披麻戴孝的女子,尾隨在一伙迎親隊伍之后,他看出這是魔鬼在伺機作惡,于是就跟蹤到新郎家,只見那女人已先到了,并躲進洞房。當新郎、新娘拜完天地要進入洞房時,紫微星守著門不讓進,說里面藏著魔鬼。眾人請他指點除魔辦法,他建議道:“魔鬼最怕人多,人多勢眾,魔鬼就不敢行兇作惡了?!庇谑?,新郎請客人們在洞房里嬉戲說笑,用笑聲驅走邪鬼;果然,到了五更時分,魔鬼終于逃走了??梢?,鬧房一開始即被蒙上了驅邪避災的色彩。鬧洞房驅邪的風俗南北各地均有。新人入洞房前,長江中下游地區,新郎前一晚就須睡在洞房,事先請兩名女童手執紅燭將新房內照一遍;天津人則請吹打班子在新房內吹打,以求吉利。新人入房后,驅房內邪氣依然十分重要。諸如在東漲,新郎進屋后要象征性地向新房四角各射一箭,或手執單刀朝每個角落虛砍一刀,并歌曰:“一砍妖,二砍怪,三砍魔鬼壞腦袋,四砍喪神快離開,笑看麒麟送子來?!备毡榈牧曀资窃谛路績戎瞄L明燈。所謂“洞房花燭夜”說的就是這個意思。有學者研究說,“聽房”習俗,實質上也是防鬼怪進入洞房的一種保護措施。關于鬧房來歷的另一種觀點認為,鬧房首先在北方出現,而且開始時主要是新郎,這大概與北方民族的生活習性有關。他們以狩獵和游牧為生活手段,使得男子十分驃悍和勇健,在新婚時忍受棒打可以證明一個男人是合格的大丈夫。世界上有些落后的民族以自殘和被虐來表明男人資格,甚至拿獵取到的人頭作為信物求偶,恐怕同出一義。鬧房在古代保留了這一原始習俗。

Traditional Chinese marriage is quite distinctive for its solemn etiquette and the scenes of the scene. It usually needs to be promoted, engaged, married, married, and noisy houses. Among them, after the newly married relatives and friends played the bride and the groom in the cave house, both the newcomers went together to sleep together as a climax. In the old days, there were some active actions that had a good relationship. Because most of them occurred in the cave house, it was called "noisy house", "noisy houses", and "new houses"; because this custom was the bride as the main funny object, it was also called "Nobody" and "Playing Brides", they were also called "play women" in the old days. There are two sayings about the origin of the customs of the house. One is derived from exorcising evil spirits. According to legend, Zi Mi -Star had a day ago, and I met a woman who was wearing a filial piety on the road. After following a group of welcoming teams, he saw that this was the devil waiting for the opportunity to do evil, so he followed the groom's house. The woman has arrived first and hid in the cave. When the groom and the bride worshiped the world to enter the cave, Ziwei Star kept the door and said that there was a devil hidden inside. The crowd asked him to point out the magic method. He suggested: "The devil is most afraid of people, and there are many people, and the devil dare not do evil." So, the groom asked the guests to play and laughed in the cave room, and drove away the evil ghosts with laughter. Sure enough, at the fifth time, the devil finally fled. It can be seen that at the beginning, the noise was covered with the colors of disaster and disaster. The customs of noisy houses are available in north and south. Before the newcomer enters the cave, in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the groom has to sleep in the cave house the night before, and invite two girls to hold the red candle to take a new house in advance. After the newcomer enters the house, the evil spirits in the driving room are still very important. For example, when the east rises, the groom must sign a symbolic manner at the four corners of the new house after entering the house, or hold a knife with a single knife to cut a knife in each corner, and the song said: "One cut monster, two cuts monsters, three cuts of demon ghosts bad bad worst His head, the funeral of the funeral quickly left, and looked at the Kirin to send the child. "The more common custom is to set up a long beacon in the new house. The so -called "cave house flower night" says that means. Some scholars have studied that the custom of "listening to the house" is essentially a protection measure to prevent ghosts entering the cave. Another point of view of the origin of the downtown house believes that the noisy house first appears in the north, and it is mainly the groom at the beginning, which is probably related to the living habits of the northern nation. They used hunting and nomadic as a means of life, making men very stunned and brave. To endure a stick during the wedding, it can prove that a man is a qualified big husband. Some backward peoples in the world show their qualifications with self -harm and abuse, and even use the hunting head as a belief to seek puppets. I am afraid that they are righteous. The troubled house retained this original custom in ancient times.

  ◆新娘蒙“紅蓋頭”的由來

◆ The origin of the bride's "red hijab"

  古時候,婚禮時,新娘頭上都會蒙著一塊別致的大紅綢緞,被稱為紅蓋頭,這塊蓋頭要入洞房時由新郎揭開。最早的蓋頭約出現在南北朝時的齊代,當時是婦女避風御寒使用的,只僅僅蓋住頭頂。到唐朝初期,便演變成一種從頭披到肩的帷帽,用以遮羞。據傳說唐朝開元天寶年間,唐明皇李隆基為了標新立異,有意突破舊習,指令宮女以“透額羅”罩頭,也就是婦女在唐初的帷帽上再蓋一塊薄紗遮住面額,作為一種裝飾物。從后晉到元朝,蓋頭在民間流行不廢,并成為新娘不可缺少的喜慶裝飾。為了表示喜慶,新娘的蓋頭都選用紅色的。新娘為什么要蒙蓋頭,還與神話傳說有關。據唐朝李冗的《獨異志》載,傳說在宇宙初開的時候,天下只有女媧兄妹二人。為了繁衍人類,兄妹倆商議,要配為夫妻。但他倆又覺得害羞。于是兄妹倆上到山頂,向天禱告:“天若同意我兄妹二人為夫妻,就讓空中的幾個云團聚合起來;若不讓,就叫它們散開吧?!痹捯宦湟?,那幾個云團冉冉近移,終于聚合為一。于是,女媧就與兄成婚。女媧為了遮蓋羞顏,乃結草為扇以障其面。扇與苫同音。苫者,蓋也。而以扇遮面,終不如絲織物輕柔、簡便、美觀。因此,執扇遮面就逐漸被蓋頭蒙頭代替了。世界上許多民族關于人類起源的傳說中,都有兄妹結婚的情節,而且都有用樹葉、獸皮或編織物遮面避羞的描述。新娘蒙紅蓋頭只是由其演變過來的。

In ancient times, during the wedding, a chic red satin was covered with a red hijab on the bride's head. This hijab was revealed by the groom when the hijab was in the cave. The earliest hijab appeared in the Qi Dai of the Northern and Southern Dynasties. At that time, it was used by women to avoid the cold, only covering the top of her head. In the early days of the Tang Dynasty, it evolved into an curtain that was put from head to shoulders for shame. According to the legendary Tang Dynasty Kaiyuan Tianbao period, in order to make a difference, Tang Minghuang Li Longji intentionally broke through the old habit, and instructed the palace maid to cover the head of the "diarrhea". Planting decorations. From the later Jin to the Yuan Dynasty, the hijab is popular in the people, and has become an indispensable festive decoration for brides. In order to show festiveness, the bride's hijabs are red. Why the bride is covered with myths and legends. According to the "Disposal" of the Tang Dynasty, it is said that when the universe first opened, there were only two siblings in the world. In order to breed humans, the brothers and siblings are discussed and should be equipped with couples. But they felt shy again. So the brothers and sisters went up to the top of the mountain and prayed to the sky: "Tianruo agreed to the two brothers and sisters as husband and wife, let a few cloud groups in the air gather; Several cloud groups moved closely, and finally agreed to one. So the son -in -law married his brother. In order to cover the shame, the son -in -law was weeded to make the fan. Fan and 音 苫.苫 苫, Gai too. And covering the face with a fan is not as soft, simple and beautiful as silk fabrics. Therefore, the fan covering the face is gradually replaced by the hijab. In the legend of many nations in the world about human origin, there are plots of brothers and sisters, and they have the description of leaf, animal skin or weaving fabrics to avoid shame. The bride's red hijab just evolved from him.

  ◆“接吻”的由來

◆ The origin of "kissing"

  吻,在西方是較為流行的禮節。關于“吻”的由來,西方傳說不一。比較流行的看法認為,吻始于古羅馬帝國。因為古羅馬嚴禁婦女飲酒,當男子外出歸來后,要先聞一聞妻子有沒有飲酒,假如妻子無酒味,丈夫就要親昵地吻上一口,這就是由“聞”到“吻”的過渡。以后相沿成習,成為夫婦見面時的第一道禮節。

Kiss is more popular in the West.Regarding the origin of "kiss", Western legends are different.The more popular views believe that kiss began in the ancient Roman Empire.Because the ancient Rome is strictly forbidden for women to drink alcohol. When a man goes out, he must first hear whether his wife has drinking. If the wife has no wine, the husband will kiss a bite intimately. This is the transition from "smell" to "kiss".EssenceIn the future, he became a practice along the way, becoming the first etiquette when the couple met.

  ◆訂婚戒指的來歷

◆ The origin of engagement rings

  有關訂婚、結婚戒指的由來,據說是古代搶婚演繹的結果,當時,男子搶來其他部落的婦女就給她戴上枷鎖。經過多少年的演變,枷鎖變成了訂婚、結婚戒指,男子給女子戴戒指表示她已歸我所有。另一個說法,世界上第一個把戒指用作訂婚信物的人是奧地利王麥士米尼。1477年,麥士米尼在一次公開場合認識了一位叫做瑪麗的公主。她的美麗容貌和優雅的舉止使麥士米尼為之傾倒。麥士米尼雖然知道瑪麗早已許婚于當時的法國王儲,但是為了贏得她的愛情,麥士米尼還是決定試試運氣。他命人專門打造了一枚珍貴的鉆石戒指,送給瑪麗。面對這只精雕細刻、閃閃發光的鉆石戒指和麥士米尼的熱烈追求,瑪麗終于改變了初衷,與麥士米尼幸福地結合了。從此,以鉆石戒指作為訂婚信物,便成為西方人士的一種傳統。

Regarding the origin of engagement and wedding ring, it was said to be the result of the ancient wedding interpretation. At that time, the man who grabbed other tribes wore a shackles for her.After many years of evolution, the shackles became engaged and wedding rings. The man wore a ring to the woman that she had belonged to me.Another statement is that the first person in the world to use the ring as an engagement token is the Austrian king of McMimini.In 1477, Mermumin met a princess named Mary in a public occasion.Her beautiful appearance and elegant manners dumped Mermumini.Although Mermini knew that Mary had already married the French crown prince at the time, in order to win her love, Mermumini decided to try luck.He ordered people to create a precious diamond ring for Mary.Faced with the enthusiastic, sparkling diamond ring and the warm pursuit of McMimini, Mary finally changed its original intention and combined with Mermumini happily.Since then, with a diamond ring as an engagement token, it has become a tradition of Westerners.

  ◆生孩子發紅蛋的由來

◆ The origin of having a child to send red eggs

  在我國遠古時期,北方易水中游居住著一個古老的氏族商。后來建立的商朝,就是由這個氏族發展起來的。商的始祖是“契”,他的母親簡狄是部族首領嚳的妻子。傳說有一天,簡狄到易水邊洗澡,忽然有一只喜燕在她身邊的一株大柳樹下生了一個蛋,簡狄見后,就將燕子蛋吃了下去。一年后,簡狄生下了一個眉清目秀的男孩,整個氏族的人都為此而高興,并舉行了隆重的慶?;顒?。首領嚳更是興奮,叫人煮了許多紅雞蛋,分送給大家共享。這個孩子就是“契”。契長大以后接替父親當了氏族的首領,成了商的始祖。從此,商這一族的人就將燕子奉為神鳥,并認為,誰家婦女只要吃燕子蛋,就會生一個聰明而又本領高強的男孩子。契的功績和生孩子吃紅蛋的古老風俗,一直流傳到現在。

In ancient China, an ancient clan business lived in the northern Yishui.The Shang Dynasty, which was later established, was developed from this clan.The ancestor of the Shang was "deed", and his mother Jian Di was the wife of the tribe's leader.It is said that one day, Jian Di went to take a bath by Yi Shui. Suddenly, a happy swallow gave birth to an egg under a big willow tree beside her. After Jian Di saw it, he ate the swallow egg.A year later, Jian Di gave birth to a boy with a clear eyebrow. The entire clan was happy for this and held a grand celebration.The leader was even more excited, so that people cooked a lot of red eggs and distributed it for everyone to share.This child is "deed".After he grew up, he replaced his father as the leader of the clan and became the ancestor of the business.Since then, the people of the Shang family have worshiped the swallow as a godbird, and believe that who women only need to eat swallow eggs, they will have a smart and highly capable boy.The achievements of the deed and the ancient customs of eating red eggs have been passed down to the present.

  ◆給小費的由來

◆ Give the origin of tips

  當前,世界各地的服務行業所通行的小費制度,源于18世紀英國倫敦。那時,當地酒店的餐桌上一般都擺著寫有“tovinsurevpromptvservice”(保證服務迅速)的碗。顧客落座后,將少量零錢放入碗中,就會得到服務人員迅速而周到的服務。后來,這種做法演變成為感謝服務人員而付給的報酬。上面幾個英文單詞的頭一個字母聯起來,就成了“tips”(即小費)。付小費的方式很多,可以放在菜盤酒杯下,可以塞在服務員手中,也可以將付款后找回的零錢留給服務員做小費。

At present, the tip system throughout the service industry around the world is derived from London, England in the 18th century.At that time, the dining table of the local hotel was generally a bowl of "TOVINSUREVPROMPTVSERVICE".After the customer seated, put a small amount of change into a bowl, and the service staff will be quickly and thoughtful.Later, this approach evolved into a paid for the service staff.The first letters of the above English words are connected, which becomes "TIPS" (that is, tip).There are many ways to pay for tips. You can put it under the wine glass, you can stuff it in the hands of the waiter, or you can leave the pocket for the payment after the payment.

  ◆“剪彩”的由來

◆ The origin of "cutting ribbon"

  剪彩的來歷有兩種傳說。一種傳說,剪彩起源于西歐。古代,西歐造船業比較發達,新船下水往往吸引成千上萬的觀眾。為了防止人群擁向新船而發生意外事故,主持人在新船下水前,在離船體較遠的地方,用繩索設置一道“防線”。等新船下水典禮就緒后,主持人就剪斷繩索讓觀眾參觀。后來繩索改為彩帶,人們就給它起了“剪彩”的名稱。另一種傳說,剪彩最早起源于美國。1912年,美國一家大百貨商店將要開業,老板為了討個吉利,一大早就把店門打開,并在門前橫系一條布帶,以引人注目??墒?,在離開店前不久,老板的一個10歲的小女兒牽著一條小哈叭狗從店里竄出來,無意中碰斷了這條布帶。頓時,在門外久等的顧客,魚貫而入,爭相購買貨物。不久,老板又開一家新店,他又讓其女兒有意把布帶碰斷,果然又財源廣進。于是,人們認為小女兒碰斷布帶的做法是一個好兆頭,群起仿效,用彩帶代替布帶,用剪刀剪斷彩帶來代替小孩碰斷布帶,沿襲下來,就成了今天盛行的“剪彩”儀式。

There are two legends of the origin of ribbon cutting. A legend, cutting the ribbon originated in Western Europe. In ancient times, Western European shipbuilding industry was relatively developed, and new ships were often attracted to tens of thousands of audiences. In order to prevent the crowd from hugging a new ship and an accident, the host set up a "line of defense" with a rope before the new ship was laid off in the water. After the new ship was ready, the host cut the rope to let the audience visit. Later, the rope changed to a ribbon, and people gave it the name of "cutting ribbon". Another legend, cutting ribbon -cutting originated in the United States. In 1912, a large department store in the United States was about to open. In order to ask for auspiciousness, the boss opened the store door early in the morning and tied a belt in front of the door to be eye -catching. However, shortly before leaving the store, a 10 -year -old daughter of the boss came out of the store with a little Harbin dog, accidentally interrupted the cloth belt. Suddenly, the customers who waited for a long time outside the door, the fish came in, and scrambled to buy the goods. Soon, the boss opened another new store, and he asked his daughter to break the cloth band, and it turned out to be wide. As a result, people think that the little daughter's practice of breaking the cloth belt is a good sign, which is followed by imitation, replaced with ribbon instead of the cloth band, and the scissors cut color to bring the child to break the cloth band. ceremony.

  ◆喝酒碰杯的由來

◆ The origin of drinking and touching the cup

  人們在喝酒之前喜歡先碰一下杯,這個習慣現在遍及全世界。它是什么時候產生的呢?一說是古希臘人創造的。傳說古希臘人注意到這樣一個事實,在喝酒時,人的很多器官都可以分享到喝酒的樂趣:鼻子可以嗅到酒的香氣,眼睛可以看到酒的顏色,舌頭可以辨別酒的味道,惟有耳朵被排除在這一享受之外。怎么辦呢?聰明的希臘人終于想出一個辦法:在喝酒之前,互相碰一下杯子,杯子發出的清脆響聲傳入耳中,這樣,耳朵也高興了。另一說碰杯起源于古羅馬。古代的羅馬崇尚武功,常常開展角力競技。競技前選手習慣飲酒,以示相互勉勵之意。由于酒是事先準備好的,為了防止有些心術不正的人給對方暗放毒藥,人們想出一種防范的辦法,這就是在角力前,雙方各持自己的酒向對方的杯中傾注一下,這樣,便逐漸發展為一種碰杯的禮儀。

People like to touch the cup before drinking, this habit is now spreading all over the world.When did it happen? One is created by the ancient Greeks.Legend has it that the ancient Greeks noticed such a fact. When drinking, many people's organs can share the fun of drinking: nose can smell the aroma of wine, the color of the eyes can be seen, the tongue can distinguish the taste of the wine, but there is only the taste of the wine.Ears are excluded from this enjoyment.What to do? The smart Greek finally came up with a way: before drinking, touch each other, and the crisp sound of the cup made into his ears, so that his ears were also happy.Another saying that touching the cup originated in ancient Rome.In ancient times, Roman advocated martial arts and often carried out wrestling competition.Before the competition, players are used to drinking to show each other.Because wine is prepared in advance, in order to prevent some people with unconventional people who desolate poison to the other party, people come up with a way to prevent. This is before the wrestling, and the two parties are leaning on each other's wine to each other's cups.In this way, it gradually develops into a ritual of touching a cup.

  ◆“理發”的由來

◆ The origin of "haircut"

  我國很久以前是沒有“理發”一詞的,認為“頭發”受之于父母,不能隨便剃除。故當時男女都留長發,只是盤發的方式不同。到了漢代,就有以理發為職業的工匠。南北朝時代,南朝梁的貴族子弟都削發剃面,那時的理發業已經很發達,出現了專職的理發師?!袄戆l”一詞,最早出現在宋代的文獻中,朱熹在注疏《詩?周頌?良耜》中“其比為櫛”一句里說明:“櫛,理發器也?!彼纬戆l業已比較發達,有了專門制造理發工具的作坊。那時,對剃發有個特殊的稱呼叫“待詔”。后來,逐漸發展成一種技藝,一個行業。在元明兩朝,人們理發更為普遍。到了清朝,滿族貴族為了達到長久統治的需要,強制下令男子一律剃頭梳辮,“留頭不留發,留發不留頭”。人們無奈去剃掉前額頂上的頭發,理發業空前發展起來。當時,到處都有理發挑子,理發工手執鐵夾(音叉)沿街叫賣,給人理發。由于各朝代對頭發的清潔衛生處理方法不同,所以有不同的稱呼,明代叫“篦頭”,清代叫“剃頭”,還有叫“剪頭”、“推頭”等。我國創建的第一個理發店,是清順治年間在奉天府建的。辛亥革命以后,許多在日本的中國理發師紛紛回國開設理發店。

There was no word "haircut" a long time ago in my country. It is believed that "hair" has suffered from parents and cannot be shaved casually. Therefore, men and women at the time left long hair, but the way of hair was different. In the Han Dynasty, there were craftsmen who used haircuts. In the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the noble children of Liang Liang were shaved. At that time, the barber industry was already very developed and a full -time hairdresser appeared. The word "haircut" first appeared in the literature of the Song Dynasty. Zhu Xi explained in the phrase "Poetry? Zhou Song? Liangzhu": "The row, the haircut also." , With a workshop specializing in hairdressing tools. At that time, there was a special name for shaving, called "waiting." Later, it gradually developed into a skill, an industry. In the Yuan and Ming dynasties, people's haircuts are even more common. In the Qing Dynasty, in order to meet the needs of long -term rule, the Manchu aristocracy forced men to shave their heads and braids. People were helpless to shave the hair on the top of the forehead, and the barber industry developed unprecedentedly. At that time, there were hairdressers everywhere, and the hairdressers were selling iron clip (sound fork) to sell along the street, giving people a haircut. Due to the different cleaning and sanitary treatment methods of hair on each dynasty, there are different names. The Ming Dynasty was called "篦 由于", the Qing Dynasty was called "shaving head", as well as "cut head" and "pushing head" and so on. The first barber shop created by my country was built in Fengtianfu during the Shunzhi period of the Qing Dynasty. After the 1911 Revolution, many Chinese hairdressers in Japan have returned to China to open a barber shop.

  ◆吸煙的起源

◆ Origin of smoking

  現代卷煙的始祖很早就有了,考古工作者在墨西哥的馬德雪山中一個海拔9000英尺的山洞里,發現了一支空心草桿中塞有煙葉,經放射性測定證明是700年前的,可謂現代卷煙的始祖。根據民間傳說,早在2000多年前,墨西哥的土著居民就開始吸煙了。他們認為火是第一天神,煙則是人和天神之間的惟一媒介,也是天神之食,所以人吸煙能驅邪消災。墨西哥的瑪雅人則認為,由于雨神吸煙,所以每到干旱季節,他們便舉行隆重的祈雨儀式:眾人圍坐一起,點燃一堆堆樹葉,吸吮冒出的青煙,再仰面朝天,吞云吐霧。因此墨西哥歷史學家認為,墨西哥的土著居民是世界上最早學會吸煙的民族。

The ancestor of modern cigarettes had been available for a long time. Archaeologists found in a cave of 9,000 feet above sea level in the Madexue Mountains in Mexico, and found a tobacco leaf in a hollow grass rod.It can be described as the ancestor of modern cigarettes.According to folklore, as early as 2000 years ago, the indigenous residents in Mexico began to smoke.They believe that fire is the first god, smoke is the only medium between man and heaven, and the food of the gods, so smoking can drive evil disasters.The Mayan people in Mexico believe that due to the smoking of the rain god, every time the drought season, they held a grand rain ritual: everyone sat around, ignited a pile of leaves, sucking the green smoke, and then facing the sky, swallowing the sky, swallowingCloud vomiting fog.Therefore, Mexican historians believe that the indigenous residents of Mexico are the earliest people in the world to learn to smoke.

  ◆“男左女右”的由來

◆ The origin of "Men's Left and Woman"

  “男左女右”的習俗和古代人的哲學觀關系非常緊密。我國古代哲學認為,宇宙中通貫物質和人畜的兩大對立面就是陰陽。自然界的事物有大小、長短、上下、左右等等,古人將其歸類分為大、長、上、左為陽,小、短、下、右為陰。陽者剛強,陰者柔弱。人的性格或性情,男子性暴剛強,屬陽于左;女子性溫柔和,屬陰于右?!澳凶笈摇痹谥嗅t應用上也有實際的科學意義,中醫診脈,男子取氣分脈于左手,女子取血分脈于右手,即使小兒患病觀察手紋也取“男左女右”的習慣?!澳凶笈摇痹卺t學上是表示男女生理上的差異,在社會風俗上是劃分區別的一種秩序安排。這種“男左女右”的習俗,早在兩千多年前的戰國時期就已經廣為傳播了。

The custom of "male left and female" is very closely related to the philosophical view of the ancients.Ancient philosophy of my country believes that the two major faces of maternity and human animals in the universe are yin and yang.Things in nature include size, length, upper and lower, left and right, etc. The ancients classified it into large, long, upper, left to yang, small, short, down, right is yin.The yang is strong and the yin is weak.Human character or temperament, men are strong and strong, belong to the yang to the left; women are gentle, belonging to the right."Men's left and female right" also has actual scientific significance in the application of Chinese medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis, men take Qiqi pulse on the left hand, women take blood points on the right hand, even if children's illness observes the hand pattern, "male left and female"habit."Men's left and female right" is medicine for medical differences in men and women, and it is a order arrangement that divides the difference in social customs.This "male left and female" custom has spread widely as early as two thousand years ago.

  ◆“沐浴”的由來

◆ The origin of "bath"

  在古代,如遇重大事件或節日,人們要“沐浴更衣”,以示尊敬,那么“沐浴”又是從何而來呢?我國沐浴歷史悠久,早在3000多年前的殷商時代,甲骨文中就有沐浴的記載?!般濉敝赶茨?,“浴”指擦洗全身?!吨芏Y》中也有“王之寢中有浴室”的記載。到春秋時期,我國人民已開始使用專門的設備來洗澡了。南朝梁簡文帝蕭綱曾著有《沐浴經》三卷,這是我國至今發現的最早研究洗澡的專著。據史書記載,公元334年,東晉石虎在鄴城蓋了“龍溫池”,這是我國較早的大型私人浴室。西安臨潼聞名中外的溫泉浴室“華清池”,則建于唐代。到了宋代,隨著商業的繁榮,營業性的公共浴室應運而生。宋代吳曾的《能改齋漫錄》中,有“公所在浴處,必掛壺于門”的記載,說明宋代的公共浴室還掛有招徠顧客的標志。非但如此,當時已出現了代客擦背的專職服務人員,他們很受洗澡人的歡迎。蘇東坡曾在一首《如夢令》詞里贊嘆過他們的勞動:“寄詞擦背人,晝夜勞君揮肘?!奔爸?6世紀,我國的公共浴室就相當普遍了。

In ancient times, if a major event or festival, people had to "bathe and change clothes" to show respect, so where did "bath" come from? my country has a long history of bathing in China. There is a record of bathing. "Mu" refers to washing the face, and the "bath" fingers wiped the whole body. "Zhou Li" is also recorded in the "King's bed". By the Spring and Autumn Period, the people of our country had begun to use special equipment to take a bath. Emperor Liang Jianwen Xiao Gang in the Southern Dynasties once wrote three volumes of the Bathing Sutra. This is the earliest monograph on bathing in my country. According to historical records, in 334 AD, the Shihu of the Eastern Jin Dynasty built "Long Wenchi" in Wucheng, which is the earliest large private bathroom in my country. The "Huaqing Pool", which is famous at the well -known Chinese and foreign hot spring baths in Lintong, was built in the Tang Dynasty. In the Song Dynasty, with the prosperity of business, the business public bathroom came into being. In the Song Dynasty Wu Zeng's "Being a Rai Zhai Man", there was a record of "the public's bath, the pot must be hung at the door", indicating that the public bathroom of the Song Dynasty also had a sign of attracting customers. Not only that, at the time, a full -time service staff of the guests had appeared, and they were very popular with bathing people. Su Dongpo once praised their labor in a "Dream Order": "Sending words wipes back and wraps the elbow day and night." As of the 16th century, my country's public bathroom was quite common.

  ◆送花圈的由來

◆ Origin of wreath

  送花圈是從歐美傳過來的習俗。在我國古代,喪葬儀式以搭靈堂為主,四周飾以白布,并扎紙人、紙馬來燒,另外還要打幡、撒紙錢等。按照北歐的傳說,一個人臨死時帶上花圈,安琪兒(即天使)就會把他的靈魂帶到天堂。原來,兩千多年前的古羅馬法律——《十二銅表法》中《神圣法》第七條說:“假如有人或者親身,或者由于自己的馬或奴隸在競賽中獲勝而得到花圈,那么在他死時,無論在他家里或在戰場,都不禁止把花圈置于死者身上。同樣,也允許他的親屬帶花圈參加葬禮?!憋@然,花圈原來是一種獎賞物!好人升天堂,壞人下地獄,這是古代中外皆同的看法。既然花圈是勝利者和勇敢者才能得到的獎賞,難怪安琪兒就只愿把有花圈的靈魂帶上天了?,F在人們為死者送花圈,仍然屬于給死者贈送的“葬禮”之類。

Sending wreath is a custom that came from Europe and the United States.In ancient my country, the funeral ceremony was mainly based on the spiritual hall. It was decorated with white cloth around, and the paper people, paper Malay burned, and also had to patch up and sprinkle paper money.According to the legend of Nordic, when a person is dying, he will bring his wreath, and An Qier (that is, angel) will bring his soul to heaven.It turned out that the ancient Roman law more than 2,000 years ago, "The Holy Law" in the "Twelve Copper Watch Law", said: "If someone is or personal, or because of his own horses or slaves, he won the wreath in the competition.Then when he died, no matter in his house or on the battlefield, the wreath was not prohibited from being placed on the deceased. Similarly, his relatives were allowed to bring wreaths to the funeral. "Obviously, the wreath was originally a reward! Good people are promotedParadise, bad guys go to hell, this is the same view of ancient Chinese and foreign.Since the wreath is a reward that the winner and the brave can only get, it is no wonder that An Qier only wants to bring the soul with a wreath to the sky.Now that people send wreaths to the deceased, they still belong to the "funeral" given to the deceased.

  ◆披麻戴孝的由來

◆ The origin of Pie Ma Daixiao

  在我國實行火葬以前,許多地方的老人去世后,安葬的時候總要最親的人(如兒子)拜路,三步一跪,五步一拜。送葬的人穿一身黑衣服,再用一只麻袋弄成披風樣式,從頭頂披戴到腰間。據民間說,這種特別的打扮還有來歷呢。很久很久以前,一位老婆婆有兩個兒子,他們成家以后都不孝敬老娘,還總是在娘面前夸口:“等娘過了,要好好熱鬧一番,讓娘睡楠木棺材,要穿紅戴綠,為娘唱七七四十九天道場……”老婆婆知道他們說的是假話,想教訓他們一頓,盡到做娘的責任。老婆婆一夜沒合眼,終于想出個辦法。第二天,老婆婆把兩個兒子叫到床前說:“我死了也不要你們花一文錢,用破草席把我一卷扔在陰水洞里就行了。不過你們要從今日開始,天天看著屋后面槐樹上的烏鴉和山樹林里的貓頭鷹是怎樣過日子的——一直到我閉了眼為止?!辈换ㄒ晃腻X,這正中了兩個不孝之子的心意,他們馬上答應了。兄弟倆本來無心看什么烏鴉與貓頭鷹過日子,但經老娘一提醒,出工收工時便不由自主地注意了起來。原來,烏鴉與貓頭鷹都是細心地喂養自己的孩子的,這些小家伙不管媽媽飛來飛去銜吃的有多快,還是張大嘴巴,嗷嗷待哺??墒?,小家伙長大以后又怎樣對待生養自己的媽媽呢?小烏鴉還不錯,媽媽老了飛不動,覓不到食,就讓她待在家,銜來吃的填在她嘴里,等到小烏鴉老了,又有自己的孩子喂養她。這樣反哺之情,代代相傳。而小貓頭鷹卻截然相反,媽媽老得不中用了,就把媽媽吃掉。令人傷心的是,小貓頭鷹后來也被自己的孩子吃掉。這樣反咬一口,一代吃一代。兄弟倆越看越看不下去,如今這樣對待老娘,將來孩子也這樣對待我們怎么辦?他們不敢往下想,漸漸地改變了對老娘的態度??墒?,天不作美,兄弟倆剛剛開始孝敬贍養老娘,她老人家卻偏偏過世了,兄弟倆后悔莫及。為了表示孝心,安葬那天,他們不是穿紅戴綠,而是模仿烏鴉羽毛的顏色,穿一身黑色衣服,模仿貓頭鷹毛色,披一件麻衣,并下跪拜路。打那以后,這個風俗就逐漸流傳開來。有的地方百姓比較窮,穿一身黑衣服買不起黑布,于是就裁一條黑布戴在胳膊上。都是為了表示要永遠記取烏鴉與貓頭鷹善惡孝逆的教訓。

Before the cremation in my country, after the death of many places, the most dear person (such as his son) had to worship the road, kneeling in three steps, five steps and one worship. The funeral person wore a black clothes, and then made a cloak style with a sack, and wearing it from the top of the head to the waist. According to the folk, this special dress has the origin. A long time ago, a wife had two sons. After they became familiar, they did not respect their old ladies. They always boasted in front of the mother: "Wait for the mother to pass, let the mother sleep on the coffin, and wearing red and wearing them. Green, singing seven, seventeen -nine days for the mother ... "The wife knew that they were talking about false words, and wanted to teach them a meal and fulfill their responsibility. My wife didn't close her eyes overnight, and finally came up with a way. The next day, my wife called the two sons to the bed and said, "I don't want you to spend a money when I die, and I can throw me up in the yin water hole with a straw mat. But you have to start today, Every day, watching the crow on the locust tree behind the house and how the owl in the mountains and forests lived on -until I closed my eyes. "Without spending a text, this is the heart of two filial sons, and they immediately agreed Essence The brothers had no intention to see the crow and the owl to live, but as soon as the old lady reminded, she could not help but pay attention to the work. It turned out that the crow and the owl were carefully fed their children. No matter how fast these little guys flew around, they opened their mouths, or they were waiting to be fed. However, how can the little guy treat the mother who raises herself when he grows up? The little crow is pretty good. The mother is flying old and can't find food. The little crow is old and has her own child to feed her. The emotion of feeding in this way is passed down from generation to generation. However, the kitten eagle is quite opposite. The mother is too old to use it, so she eats her mother. Sadly, the kitten eagle was later eaten by his child. Take a bite in this way and eat one generation. The brothers watched the more and more, and now they treat the old lady like this. What should the children treat us like this in the future? They dare not think down and gradually change their attitude towards the old lady. However, the sky is not beautiful, and the brothers have just begun to respect the elderly mother, but her old man died, and the brothers regretted it. In order to show filial piety, on the day of the burial, they were not wearing red and green, but imitating the color of the crow feathers, wearing a black clothes, imitating the owl hair color, a hemp, and kneeling. After that, this custom gradually spread. In some places, the people are poor, and they can't afford black cloth in black clothes, so they cut a black cloth on their arms. It is to express the lessons of the crow and the cat eagle forever.

  ◆中秋吃月餅的由來

◆ The origin of eating moon cakes in the Mid -Autumn Festival

  中國很早就有在農歷八月十五日中秋節那天吃月餅的習俗,這種習俗的來源說法不一。普遍的說法是:唐朝時,太宗李世民為征討北方突厥,平定其屢次的侵犯,令手下大將李靖親自率部出征,轉戰邊塞,結果屢建奇功。八月十五這天凱旋歸京。為了慶祝勝利,京都長安城內外鳴炮奏樂,軍民狂歡通宵。當時有個到長安通商的吐蕃人,特地向皇上獻圓餅祝捷。太宗李世民大喜,接過裝璜華麗的餅盒,取出彩色圓餅,指著懸掛天空的明月說道:“應將胡餅邀蟾蜍,即月亮?!彪S后,將圓餅分給了文武百官。從此,中秋節吃月餅的習俗便流傳了下來。一說始于宋朝。在北宋時的京都東京(今河南開封),每逢中秋之夜,人們均登高樓、爬高山,待月亮升起時開始進行祭月活動,所用供品有月餅、瓜果、雞冠花之類,但以月餅為主。宋代詩人蘇東坡詩云:“小餅如嚼月,中有酥和飴?!蹦菚r的月餅與現在的月餅已很相似了。今天,我們在中秋節吃月餅,不僅為了慶祝豐收,而且也是對親人團圓的一種期盼。

China has a long time to eat moon cakes on the Mid -Autumn Festival on August 15th of the lunar calendar. The source of this custom is different. It is generally said that during the Tang Dynasty, Taizong Li Shimin used to conquer the Northern Turks and calmed down his repeated violations, so that his general Li Jing personally led his signs and turned to the frontier, and the result was repeatedly built. On August 15th, triumphant returned to Beijing. In order to celebrate the victory, the inside and outside of Kyoto Changan, the military and civilians carnival. At that time, there was a Tubo who went to Chang'an to make a round cake to the emperor. Taizong Li Shimin was overjoyed, took the gorgeous decoration of the decoration, took out the colorful round cake, and pointed at Mingyue who hanged the sky and said: "The cake should be invited to toad, that is, the moon." Later, the round cake was divided into cultural and military officials. Since then, the custom of eating moon cakes in the Mid -Autumn Festival has passed down. It started in the Song Dynasty. In the Kyoto Tokyo (now Kaifeng, Henan) during the Northern Song Dynasty, every Mid -Autumn Festival, people boarded high -rise buildings and climbed the mountains. When the moon rose, the moon sacrifice activities were started. But moon cakes are the main. Song Dynasty poet Su Dongpo Shiyun: "The small cakes are chewing the moon, there are crispy and crickets." At that time, the moon cakes were very similar to the current moon cake. Today, we eat moon cakes in the Mid -Autumn Festival, not only to celebrate the harvest, but also a kind of expectation for loved ones.

  ◆給亡人燒紙的由來

◆ The origin of burning paper for the dead

  傳統上,逢年過節祭奠老人和逝去的親人時,人們尤其是老人們喜歡燒一些用紙疊成的所謂金銀元寶。那么,給死人燒紙錢是怎么來的呢?這里還有一個精明的商人的故事。在漢代,有個名叫尤文一的秀才,寒窗苦讀十幾年,卻沒能獲取功名。他便棄筆從商,投在大發明家蔡倫的門下,學習造紙。尤秀才聰明過人,很受蔡倫的器重,很快蔡倫就把自己的技術全部傳給了尤秀才。過了幾年,蔡倫死了,尤秀才就繼承蔡倫的事業造起紙來。尤秀才比蔡倫更勝一籌,造出的紙又多又好??墒?,當時用紙的人很少,造出的紙賣不出去,在庫房里堆積如山。為此,尤秀才十分犯愁,漸漸地茶飯不進,臥床不起,三天沒過,竟然閉上眼睛死去了。家里的人頓時哭得天昏地暗。左鄰右舍知道了消息,都過來幫助料理喪事。尤秀才的妻子哭著對大伙說:“家境不好,沒有什么可以陪葬,就把這些紙燒給他做陪葬吧?!庇谑?,專門派一個人在尤秀才的靈前燒紙。到了第三天,尤秀才突然坐起來,嘴里還不停地叫著:“快燒紙,快燒紙?!比藗円詾橛刃悴胚€魂了,都害怕起來。尤秀才卻說:“不要害怕,我是真的活了,是閻王老爺把我放回來的?!比藗兌几械绞趾闷?,紛紛詢問根由。尤秀才說:“是你們燒的這些紙把我救了。這紙燒化之后,到了陰曹地府就變成了錢。我用這錢還了債,贖了罪,閻王老爺就把我放回來了?!奔依锶寺犃?,無不歡天喜地,又燒了不少紙。這件事傳出去之后,也有人不相信。一個有錢有勢的老員外把尤秀才找去,對他說:“我家用金銀陪葬,不是比紙值錢得多嗎?”尤秀才說:“員外不知。這金銀是陽間所用的,絕對帶不到陰曹地府去。不信,員外老爺可掘開祖墳,那些陪葬的金銀保證分毫沒動?!眴T外聽了點頭稱是,并買了尤秀才家大量的紙。于是,買紙的人一下子多起來,尤秀才造出的紙還供不上賣哩。其實,尤秀才并不是真的死而復生,只不過是為了多賣紙,和妻子商量設下的一個計策。然而,給死人燒紙的風俗卻一直流傳下來了。

Traditionally, when commemorating the elderly and the dead relatives of the New Year, people, especially the elderly, like to burn some so -called gold and silver ingots stacked with paper. So, how did you burn paper money for the dead? There is also a savvy story here. In the Han Dynasty, there was a talented talent named You Wenyi. He abandoned the pen and invested in the door of the inventor Cai Lun to learn papermaking. You Xiucai is smart, and is very important to Cai Lun's device. Soon Cai Lun passed all his skills to You Xiucai. After a few years, Cai Lun died, and You Xiucai inherited Cai Lun's career. You Xiu is better than Cai Lun, and there are more paper and good paper. However, there were very few people using paper at the time, and the paper created could not be sold, and it accumulated in the warehouse. For this reason, You Xiucai was very worried. He gradually did not enter the tea and couldn't afford to bed. After three days, he closed his eyes and died. The people at home suddenly cried. The neighbors knew the news and came to help the funeral. You Xiucai's wife cried and said to everyone: "The family is not good, there is nothing to be buried, so burn these paper to him for burial." So, he sent a person to burn paper in front of You Xiucai's spirit. On the third day, You Xiu suddenly sat up, and he kept crying in his mouth: "Burn paper, burn the paper." People thought You Xiu was returning to the soul and was afraid. You Xiucai said, "Don't be afraid, I really live, Master Yan Wang put me back." People were very curious and asked the roots. You Xiucai said: "It was you burned these paper to save me. After this paper was burned, it became money when I arrived at Yin Cao Difu. . "The family listened, and all of them burned a lot of paper. After this incident was spread, some people did not believe it. A rich and powerful veteran asked You Xiu to find out, saying to him, "Isn't my family funeral funeral much more valuable than paper?" You Xiu said: "I don't know outside. This gold and silver I can never take Yin Cao Difu. I do n’t believe it. The master outside can dig the ancestral grave. Those funeral gold and silver guarantees have not moved. "The member nodded and said it, and bought You Xiucai's a lot of paper. As a result, there are more people who buy paper, and the paper created by You Xiucai is not confession. In fact, You Xiucai is not really reborn, but just to sell more paper and discuss with his wife to discuss a strategy. However, the custom of burning paper for the dead has been circulating.

  三、 稱謂類

Three, Title Class

  ◆“爸爸媽媽”的由來

◆ The origin of "Mom and Dad"

  “媽媽”是最簡單的發音,是嬰兒張嘴吐氣的自然結果,第二個最簡單的發音就是“爸爸”。當嬰兒的兩只眼睛的視線逐漸形成了焦點能看清東西,并且視線的接觸范圍也開始逐漸擴大時,就開始了對環境的認識的過程,首先第一個就是感知了溫飽的來源——“媽媽”(從世界范圍內來看,各種語言之間的差異甚遠,但例外的是對“媽媽”發音是極其驚人的一致,這主要是由嬰兒發音的特點和對溫飽基本本能需要的一致性造成的,“媽媽”是最簡單的發音,是嬰兒張嘴吐氣的自然結果,第二個最簡單的發音就是“爸爸”。)此時“媽媽”的含義并不是真正意義上的“媽媽”,而只是乳汁和溫暖的象征,當隨著嬰兒對環境的識別能力的加強,這些基本的本能需要就逐漸和特定的環境、對象結合在一起了;隨著發音器官的發育,嬰兒有一天一張嘴,無意中發出了一個最簡單的“ma”音,一般最先聽到這個聲音的總是擔任哺育任務的母親,于是母親就會主觀地認為這是孩子在叫自己,于是就作出了一些驚喜地反映,例如:主動地喂奶,呵護,等等,終于有一天,使嬰兒逐漸發出了在除了哭作為表達需要的手段之外的另一個手段,即:發出“ma”的聲音,最后這種聲音就以條件反射的方式與溫飽的來源連在了一起,固化了嬰兒對環境的認識。這時,嬰兒在認識與不認識的基礎上就會出現熟悉與不熟悉、適應與不適應的感覺,漸而出現了安全的需要,當象征著溫飽、熟悉的“mama”不在時,恐懼就會來臨。這個階段時間上,應該是哺乳的前期到哺乳的中后期。

"Mom" is the simplest pronunciation. It is the natural result of the baby's breath. The second and the simplest pronunciation is "Dad". When the eyes of the two eyes of the baby gradually formed the focus to see things, and the scope of the vision began to expand, the process of understanding the environment began. First of all, the first is to perceive the source of food and clothing - "Mom" (from the world's perspective, the differences between various languages ??are far from, but the exception is extremely amazingly consistent with "Mom". Consistently caused by the consistency, "Mom" is the simplest pronunciation, the natural result of the baby's breath, the second and the simplest pronunciation is "dad".) At this time, the meaning of "mother" is not a real " Mom ", but only a symbol of milk and warmth. When the baby's ability to identify the environment is strengthened, these basic instincts need to gradually combine with a specific environment and objects; with the development of the pronunciation organs, babies have the infantry. A mouth of a day, inadvertently emitting the simplest "MA" sound. Generally, the first who heard this sound always served as the mother who nurtured the mission, so the mother would subjectively think that this was the child calling himself, so he made it. Some surprises reflected, such as: actively feeding, care, and so on. Finally, one day, the baby gradually made another means to cry as a means of expression, that is, the sound of "MA", which made "MA", and the sound of "MA", and the sound of "MA". In the end, this sound is connected with the source of food and clothing in a conditional reflection, and solidify the baby's understanding of the environment. At this time, on the basis of understanding and unknown, babies will feel familiar and unfamiliar, adaptive, and uncomfortable, and gradually appear to be safe. Will come. At this stage, it should be the middle and late stages of breastfeeding.

  ◆“小姐”的由來

◆ The origin of "Miss"

  我國一度喜歡稱年輕女子為小姐,但是“小姐”這個稱呼原本非美稱。據清代文史家趙翼《陔余叢考》稱“宋時閨閣女稱小娘子,而小姐乃賤者之稱”,為大家閨秀所忌。宋代錢惟演在《玉堂逢辰錄》中,記有“掌茶酒宮人韓小姐”。由此可見,“小姐”最初是指宮女而言;在南宋洪邁撰的《夷堅志》又記載:“傅九者,好使游,常與散樂林小姐綢繆?!薄傲中〗恪笔莻€藝人。蘇武也有《成伯席上贈妓人楊小姐》詩,此詩是贈給妓女的??梢娝未伺卜Q為“小姐”。宋、元時姬妾也常被稱為“小姐”。

my country once liked to call young women as a lady, but the name "Miss" was originally not known.According to Zhao Yi, a literary historian in the Qing Dynasty, the "Yu Yu Cong Kao" said that "the girl in the Song Dynasty was called the little lady, and the lady was known as the cheap person."In the Song Dynasty, Qian Weiyan was in "Yutang Fengchen Record", and he remembered "Ms. Han Ms. Han."It can be seen that "Miss" initially refers to the palace girl; "Yi Jianzhi" written in Hongmai in the Southern Song Dynasty also recorded: "Fu Jiuzhe, easy to swim, often with Miss Sanle Lin." "Miss Lin"Is an artist.Su Wu also has poems "Gift to Miss Yang on Jackie Cic", which is presented to prostitutes.It can be seen that the prostitutes of the Song Dynasty were also called "Miss".Song and Yuan Shi Ji is often called "Miss".

  ◆“先生”的由來

◆ The origin of "Mr."

  “先生”這個稱呼由來已久。不過歷史上各個時期,對“先生”這個稱呼是針對不同對象的?!墩撜Z?為政》:“有酒食,先生饌?!弊⒔庹f:“先生,父兄也?!币馑际怯芯齐?,就孝敬了父兄?!睹献印罚骸跋壬螢槌龃搜砸??!边@一“先生”是指長輩而有學問的人。到了戰國時代,《國策》:“先生坐,何至于此”均是稱呼有德行的長輩。第一個用“先生”稱呼老師的,始見于《曲禮》:“從于先生,不越禮而與人言?!弊ⅲ骸跋壬?,老人教學者?!苯穹Q教師為“先生”,本此。漢代,“先生”前加上一個“老”字。清初,稱相國為老先生,到了乾隆以后,官場中已少用老先生這個稱呼了。辛亥革命后,老先生這個稱呼又盛行起來。交際場中,彼此見面,對老成的人,都一律稱呼為老先生?,F在,妻子多自稱自家丈夫為“先生”。對別的婦女的丈夫也叫“先生”。有時候,先生也不一定完全指男士,德高望眾的女性也有被稱為先生的,比如“宋慶齡先生”。

The name "Mr." has a long history. However, in various periods in history, the term "sir" is targeted at different objects. "The Analects of Confucius": "There is a wine and food, sir." Note: "Sir, father and brother." It means that there is a dish, and he respects his father and brother. "Mencius": "What a gentleman is also saying this." This "sir" refers to the elders and learned people. In the Warring States Period, "National Policy": "Mr. Sit, why" is the elders who have virtue. The first one who called the teacher in "Mr." was originally seen in "Qu Li": "From Mr. Yu, he said to others without gifts." Note: "Sir, the elderly teachers." So. In the Han Dynasty, the word "old" was added in front of "Mr.". At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, he was called the old gentleman. After the Qianlong, the name of the old man was rare in the officialdom. After the Revolution of 1911, the name of the old man prevailed again. In the communication field, meeting each other, and all of the people who are old. Now, most of his wife claims to be "sir". The husband of other women is also called "sir". Sometimes, Mr. does not necessarily refer to men, and women who look at the public are also called Mr., such as "Mr. Song Qingling".

  ◆“丈夫”的由來

◆ The origin of "husband"

  人們通常談到夫婦時,夫多被稱為“丈夫”,妻子則被叫做“老婆”。這兩種叫法、習俗相沿至今。原來,在我國有些部落,有搶婚的習俗。女子選擇夫婿,主要看這個男子是否夠高度,一般以身高一丈為標準。當時的一丈約等于七尺(那時的一尺約合現在的六寸多),有了這個身高一丈的夫婿,才可以抵御強人的搶婚。根據這種情況,女子都稱她所嫁的男人為“丈夫”。

When people usually talk about couples, husbands are called "husbands" and wives are called "wives".These two names and customs are along to the present.It turned out that in some tribes in my country, there were customs to grab marriage.Women choose husbands, mainly depending on whether this man is high enough, generally uses one foot height as the standard.At that time, about seven feet (one foot at that time about six inches at that time), with this husband with a height of one foot, to resist the strong people's wedding.According to this situation, the woman called the "husband" she married.

  ◆“妻子”的由來

◆ The origin of "Wife"

  “妻”最早見于《易?系辭》:“人于其官,不見其妻?!钡拊诠糯皇悄凶优渑嫉耐ǚQ?!抖Y記?曲禮下》載:“天子之妃曰后,諸侯曰夫人,大夫曰孺人,庶人曰妻?!笨磥砟菚r的“妻”只是平民百姓的配偶,是沒有身份的。后來,“妻”才漸漸成為所有男人配偶的通稱?!捌蕖钡膭e稱很多。古代無論官職大小通稱妻為“孺人”。卿大夫的嫡妻稱為“內子”,泛指妻妾為“內人”。妻還被稱為“內助”,意為幫助丈夫處理家庭內部事務的人?!百t內助”成為好妻子的美稱。舊時對別人謙稱自己妻子為“拙內”、“賤內”。而在官職較高的階層中對妻子的稱呼卻反映出等級制度來。如諸侯之妻稱“小君”,漢代以后王公大臣之妻稱夫人,唐、宋、明、清各朝還對高官的母親或妻子加封,稱誥命夫人。

"Wife" was first seen in "Easy?": "People are in their officials, and they don't see their wives." But his wife was not a general name for men's spouses in ancient times."Book of Rites? Qu Li" contains: "After the concubine of the emperor, the princes are lady, the doctor is called the people, and the people are wives." It seems that the "wife" at that time was only the spouse of the civilians, and there was no identity.Later, the "wife" gradually became a general name for all men's spouses.There are many other names of "wife".In ancient times, the official duty was called "孺 人".Dr. Qing's wife is called "inner son", and it refers to his wife and concubine as "inner".Wife is also called "inner assistance", which means to help her husband handle internal affairs of the family."Xianxu" has become the name of a good wife.In the old days, he humbled his wife as "clumsy" and "cheap inside".The name of his wife in the high official class reflects the hierarchical system.For example, the wives of the princes call it "little monarch", the wife of the princes of the princes after the Han Dynasty called the wife, and the Tang, Song, Ming, and Qing dynasties also sealed the mothers or wives of senior officials, saying that Mrs. Life.

  ◆“太太”的由來

◆ The origin of "Mrs."

  漢哀帝時,“太太”原為尊稱老一輩的王室夫人。到后來,漢室又稱皇太后為皇太太后。太太的稱謂,漢代在貴族婦女中逐漸推廣起來。明代時稱太太要具備這樣的條件:“凡士大夫妻,年來三十即呼太太”,即司眷屬,中丞以上的官職才配稱太太。清朝的人,則喜歡叫家庭主婦為太太,不過都以婢仆呼女主人的居多。北洋政府和民國時期,太太的稱呼開始泛濫,從大帥到芝麻綠豆官,其眷屬都可相稱太太,官太太、經理太太、校長教授太太,到處都是,不過無形中多少還有些限制,至少是在有知識階層之上。二十多年對外開放以來,隨著港澳臺和外籍華裔、僑胞的歸鄉入里,“太太”的稱謂同小姐、先生一樣又時髦起來,成為人們對朋友間已婚女子的敬稱,而且從廣泛性來說似乎已更少含有什么官職的味道,變得更平民化了。

During the Emperor Han Ai, the "wife" was originally the royal lady of the older generation.Later, the Han Dynasty was also called the queen queen queen.The wife's title was gradually promoted in the noble women in the Han Dynasty.During the Ming Dynasty, his wife had to have such conditions: "Vase -and -wife husband and wife, who called Mrs. Mrs. Thirty years", that is, the relatives, and the official position of Zhongxuan or above is worthy of the wife.People in the Qing Dynasty liked to call their housewives as a wife, but most of them used their servants to call the hostess.During the Beiyang government and the Republic of China, the names of his wife began to flood. From the handsome to Sesame and mung bean officers, their dependents can be called the wife.It is above the knowledge class.Since the opening of more than two decades, with the return of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, the home of Chinese and foreign Chinese, and overseas Chinese, the title of "Mrs." is as fashionable as the lady and gentleman.In terms of extensiveness, it seems that it has less official taste, which has become more civilian.

  ◆“老婆”的由來

◆ The origin of "Wife"

  “老婆”這個稱謂,最初的含義是指老年婦人。后來王晉卿詩句有云:“老婆心急頻相勸?!斑@一“老婆”是指主持家務的妻子。因此,后來稱呼自己的妻子叫“老婆”?!袄掀拧迸c“老公”這類叫法,都含有“相濡以沫、恩愛長久”的愿望。

The title of "Wife" originally meant an elderly woman.Later, Wang Jinqing's poem was cloudy: "Wife is urgent to persuade each other." This "wife" refers to the wife who hosts the housework.Therefore, he later called his wife "wife"."Wife" and "husband" are the desires of "each other and love for a long time".

  ◆“愛人”的由來

◆ The origin of "love"

  現代人常用愛人來稱謂自己的配偶,這一稱呼來于英國。位于蘇格蘭達姆弗利的斯威特哈特寺院使英語單詞“SweetHeart”含有了“愛人”之意。斯威特哈特寺院是由1296年去世的巴納德城堡領主約翰?巴里奧爾之妻德鮑吉拉夫人修建的。德鮑吉拉夫人與丈夫二人一生恩愛,丈夫死后,她將丈夫的尸體安葬,但將丈夫的心臟熏香后裝在了象牙盒里隨身攜帶,常常謂之曰:“我最可愛的心,不會說話的伙伴?!本瓦@樣佩帶了一生。臨終前,她留下了這樣的遺囑:“如果我死了,為了讓兩顆連結著的心永遠在一起,請將我丈夫的心臟放在我的胸上一起埋葬?!彼缭谏熬瓦x好了墓地,并建立一座寺院,用拉丁語命名為多維爾凱科爾(甜密的心)。爾后,在英文中習慣地呼之為斯威特哈特寺院。1290年她逝世后不久,“斯威特哈特”一詞即被作為“愛人”的同義語,被人們廣為應用,還讓人聯想起一段忠貞不渝的愛情。

Modern people often use lover to call their spouse, which comes in the UK. The Swate Hart temple in Scotland Darmfli made the English word "Sweetheart" contains the meaning of "love". The Swatehart temple was built by Mrs. De Bogila, the wife of Barnard Castle, who died in 1296. Mrs. Debaojila and her husband were loving for a lifetime. After her husband died, she buried her husband's body, but put her husband's heart incense and carried it in the ivory box. It often said: "I am the cutest Heart, a partner who can't speak. "He took a lifetime. Before dying, she left such a will: "If I die, in order to let the two linked hearts always be together, please put my husband's heart on my chest." Selected the cemetery and established a temple, named Domovir Kelkor (sweet heart) in Latin. Later, he used to call it in English as the Swatehart Temple. Shortly after her death in 1290, the word "Swatehart" was used as a synonym for "love", which was widely used by people, and reminded people of a loyal love.

  ◆“兩口子”的由來

◆ The origin of "two two"

  夫妻稱“兩口子”由來于清朝乾降年間。當年,山東有一個叫張繼賢的才子,一個偶然的機會,張繼賢與本地惡少石萬倉的妻子曾素箴相識,二人一見鐘情,夜夜往來。石萬倉是個酗酒成性的家伙。一次,石萬倉因飲酒過度、引起酒精中毒而身亡。石家人懷疑石萬倉是被其妻曾素箴害死的,于是告到縣衙門,說曾素箴因偷奸殺死親夫??h官接狀后,不問青紅皂白,就把張繼賢和曾素箴打入大牢,判為死罪,從縣府押到京城。一次,乾隆皇帝閱案,看到了張繼賢的供狀,見其文筆不凡,十分驚訝。于是,乾隆皇帝親自到牢中去看望張繼賢。在交談中,乾隆皇帝確信張繼賢是個才子,便有心救他。不久,乾隆皇帝下江南私訪,途經微山湖時,停留了幾天。乾隆熟悉這里的山山水水后,便御批:將張繼賢發配到臥虎口,將曾素箴發配到黑風口。張繼賢、曾素箴二人雖然雙雙冤入大牢,但是情卻始終未斷。這次獲皇帝恩準發配到“兩口”后,真是喜出望外,二人時?;ネ?,甚是自由。他們這樣來往于臥虎口與黑風口,被人們稱為“兩口子”。后來,人們就把“兩口子”衍指“夫妻倆”。

The husband and wife called the "two sons" during the dry years of the Qing Dynasty. At that time, there was a talented man named Zhang Jixian in Shandong. Occasionally, Zhang Jixian met with the wife of the local evil Shaoshi Wancang. Shi Wancang is an alcoholic guy. Once, Shi Wancang died of excessive drinking and causing alcoholism. The Shi family suspected that Shi Wancang was killed by his wife Zeng Suzhen, so he sue to the county gate, saying that Zeng Suzhen killed his husband for gangster. After the county officials were connected, Zhang Jixian and Zeng Suzhen were sentenced to death regardless of the green soap and white. Once, Emperor Qianlong read the case and saw Zhang Jixian's confession. He was surprised to see his writing. So Emperor Qianlong personally went to the jail to visit Zhang Jixian. During the conversation, Emperor Qianlong was convinced that Zhang Jixian was a talented man, so he rescued him. Soon, Emperor Qianlong visited Jiangnan privately, and stayed for a few days when he passed through Weishan Lake. After Qianlong was familiar with the mountains and rivers here, he approved: Zhang Jixian was distributed to the Crouching Tiger's mouth, and Zeng Suzhenfa was distributed to the black wind. Although Zhang Jixian and Zeng Suzhen have entered the prison, their love has never been broken. After the emperor's grace was distributed to the "two mouthfuls" this time, it was really overjoyed. The two often came to each other and were very free. They are called "two sons" in the mouth of Crouching Tiger and Black Wind. Later, people referred to the "couple".

  ◆“丈人”的由來

◆ The origin of "Zhangren"

  在家庭關系中,稱妻子的父親為“丈人”。然而魏晉以前,妻子的父親被叫做“舅”或“婦翁”?!罢扇恕眲t是對上了歲數的男子的尊稱。不過在唐朝文學家柳宗元《祭楊憑詹事文》中,開門見山寫的是:“年月,子婿謹以清酌庶羞之奠,昭祭于丈人之靈?!彼纬恕垛⒂X寮雜記》和《雞肋編》都據以為證,以為開始于此。但更確切地說,為時還要早得多。陳壽《三國志?蜀志?先主傳》里提到“獻帝舅車騎將軍董承”,董承是獻帝劉協的表叔,親上做親,女兒給劉協做了“貴人”。裴松之注釋上邊這句話時寫道:“(董承)于獻帝為丈人,蓋古無丈人之名,故謂之舅也?!?/p>

In family relations, his wife's father was "disciplinary."However, before the Wei and Jin dynasties, his wife's father was called "舅" or "woman"."Zhangren" is the respect of the man who is old.However, in the Tang Dynasty Literature Family Liu Zongyuan's "Sacrifice Yang Biao Zhan Shiwen", the door opened to see: "New Year's Eve, Zi Yi wishes to clear the shame, Zhao sacrifices in the spirit of the appeared."The Song Dynasty's" Jue Jue Xun Miscellaneous Ji "and" Chicken Ribs "were found to be proven and thought it started here.But more precisely, it is much earlier.Chen Shou's "Three Kingdoms? Shu Zhi? The Legend of the Lord" mentioned "Dedi Emperor and Cycling General Dong Cheng". Dong Cheng is the cousin of the emperor Liu Xie.In this sentence, Pei Songzhi wrote in this sentence: "(Dong Cheng) Yu Xian was the emperor, covering the name of the ancients, so it is called the concubine."

  ◆“泰山”的由來

◆ The origin of "Taishan"

  此稱謂都與泰山的“封禪”有關。據唐段成式《酉陽雜俎》前集卷十二記載,唐玄宗李隆基于開元四年(726年)到泰山封禪。丞相張說擔任封禪使,順便把他的女婿鄭鎰也帶去了。按舊例,有幸隨皇帝參加封禪者,丞相以下的官吏都可以升一級。鄭鎰本是九品官,張說利用職權,一下子把他連升四級。唐玄宗在宴會上看到鄭鎰突然穿上五品官穿的淺緋色官服,覺得奇怪,便去問他。鄭鎰支支吾吾,不好回。這時,擅長諷刺的宮廷藝人黃旛綽替他回答說:“此泰山之力也!”妙語雙關,唐玄宗心照不宣,事情就這樣混過去了。后人因此稱妻父為“泰山”。因為泰山又稱東岳,是五岳之長,所以又轉而把妻父稱做“岳”、“岳翁”、“岳父”、“岳丈”等。據文獻記載,這種稱謂大致始自宋代。妻母則稱做“岳母”,在書面文獻中,后來也有稱做“泰水”的。由此可見,“泰山”稱謂的出現是來自親屬關系中政治利益的關聯。

This title is related to the "sealing Zen" of Taishan. According to the twelve records of Tang Duancheng's "Puyang Miscellaneous", Tang Xuanzong Li Longji went to Taishan Zen in the fourth year of Kaiyuan (726). The prime minister Zhang said that he served as Feng Chan, and by the way, he brought his son -in -law Zheng Yan. According to the old example, if you are fortunate to participate in the Zen seal with the emperor, officials below the prime minister can be upgraded to the level. Zheng Yan was the official of Jiupin, and Zhang said that he used his powers and suddenly promoted him to four levels. Tang Xuanzong saw that Zheng Yan suddenly wore the light -colored official clothes worn by Wupin Guan at the banquet. He felt strange and asked him. Zheng Yan supports me, it is not easy to return. At this time, Huang Yicuo, a court artist who was good at irony, replied for him, "The power of this Taishan is also!" Double levels of Miao Yu, Tang Xuanzong's mind was not declared, and things were mixed like this. Later generations said their wife and father were "Taishan". Because Taishan is also known as Dongyue, it is the length of the Five Yue, so he turned his wife and father as "Yue", "Yue Weng", "father -in -law", "Yuezhang" and so on. According to literature, this title starts from the Song Dynasty. The wife and mother are called "mother -in -law". In written literature, they were later called "Thai Water". It can be seen that the appearance of "Taishan" is the relationship between political interests in relatives.

  ◆“拖油瓶”的由來

◆ The origin of "Drag Pottle"

  “拖油瓶”是舊時對改嫁婦女的一種歧視性稱呼。舊社會婦女改嫁,前夫所生的子女被帶到后夫家去的,俗稱“拖油瓶”。對于這樣一個奇怪的稱呼,許多人百思不解。其實這是以訛傳訛,正確的說法應該是“拖有病”而不是“拖油瓶”。古時候寡婦再嫁,后夫娶寡婦做妻子的,家境一般都不太好。舊社會天災人禍頻繁,一旦寡婦帶來的子女有什么三長兩短,往往引起前夫親屬的責難。后夫為避免這類糾葛,娶寡婦做妻子時,就要請人寫一字據,言明前夫子女來時就有病,今后如有不測與后夫無關。因而人們就把再嫁婦女的子女稱為“拖有病”。由于“拖有病”與“拖油瓶”字音相近,就被人說成了“拖油瓶”。

"Drag bottle" was a discriminatory name for remarriage of women in the old days.Women in the old society remarried, and the children born to the ex -husband were taken to the future husband's house, commonly known as "dragging oil bottle".Many people puzzled such a strange title.In fact, this is a rumor, and the correct statement should be "dragging disease" rather than "dragging oil bottle".In ancient times, widows remarried again, and their post -husband married widows as wives. The family is generally not very good.Natural disasters in the old society are frequent. Once the children brought by the widow have three or two shorts, they often cause the duty of their ex -husband's relatives.In order to avoid such entanglements, when marrying a widow as a wife, they must ask someone to write a word. It is clear that the ex -husband and children will be sick when they come.Therefore, people call the children who marry a woman again as "dragging".Because "Drag is sick" is similar to the sound of "dragging oil bottle", it is said to be "dragging oil bottle".

  ◆“兩面派”的由來

◆ The origin of "two sides"

  “兩面派”,一般指口是心非、善于偽裝的人。那么,“兩面派”是怎樣來的呢?元朝末年,元軍和朱元璋領導的義軍在黃河以北展開了拉鋸戰,老百姓苦不堪言,誰來了都要歡迎,都要在門板上貼上紅紅綠綠的歡迎標語,來得勤換得也快。豫北懷慶府人生活節儉,于是想出了個一勞永逸的辦法:用一塊薄薄的木板,一面寫著歡迎元軍的“保境安民”的標語,另一面寫上歡迎義軍的“驅除韃虜,恢復中華”的標語,哪方來了,就翻出歡迎哪方的標語,既省錢又方便。但想不到這個方法后來竟惹出大禍。一次,朱元璋的大將常遇春率軍進駐懷慶府,進城見家家門口五顏六色的木牌上滿是歡迎標語,心里高興??墒峭蝗灰魂嚳耧L刮來,木牌翻轉,反面全是歡迎元軍的標語。常遇春氣極之余,下令將凡是掛兩面牌的人都滿門抄斬?,F在常說的“兩面派”,就是從懷慶府“兩面牌”演變而來,殊不知這里面還有一段血淚史。

"Two sides" generally refers to the person who is wrong and good at disguise. So, how did the "two factions" come? At the end of the Yuan Dynasty, the righteous army led by the Yuan Army and Zhu Yuanzhang launched a tug -of -war north of the Yellow River. The welcome slogan of red and green, it is fast to change. The people of Huaiqingfu, northern Henan, were frugal, so they came up with a way to do it once and for all: using a thin piece of wooden board, on one hand, the slogan of "protecting the people" of the Yuan Army, and the other side wrote the "removing 韃 韃 韃 韃 韃 韃The slogan of the prisoner, restoring China ", which party comes, can out the welcoming slogan, which is both money and convenient. But I did not expect this method to cause a big disaster. Once, Zhu Yuanzhang's general Chang Yuchun led the army to Huaiqing Mansion. When he entered the city, he saw the colorful wooden sign at the door of his home. He was happy. However, a sudden wind was scraped, the wooden cards flipped, and the opposite side was all welcomed the sign of the Yuan Army. In addition to the extreme spring of the spring, he ordered all the people who hanged both sides to cut the door. The "two factions" that are often referred to now are the evolution of the "two sides" of Huaiqingfu.

  ◆“二百五”的由來

◆ The origin of "25"

  日常生活中,人們常把傻瓜或說話不正經、辦事不認真、處事隨便、好出洋相的人叫做“二百五”。一說來源于戰國故事。蘇秦是戰國時的一個說客,他身佩六國相印,一時很是威風,但也結下了很多仇人。后來,他終于在齊國被人殺了,齊王很惱怒,要為蘇秦報仇??梢粫r拿不到兇手,于是,他想了一條計策,讓人把蘇泰的頭從尸體上割下來,懸掛在城門上,旁邊貼著一道榜文說:“蘇秦是個內奸,殺了他黃金千兩,望來領賞?!卑裎囊毁N出,就有四個人聲稱是自己殺了蘇秦。齊王說:“這可不許冒充呀!”四個人又都咬定說自己干的。齊王說:“一千兩黃金,你們四個人各分得多少?”四個齊聲回答:“一人二百五?!饼R王拍案大怒道:“來人,把這四個'二百五’推出去斬了!”“二百五”一詞就這樣流傳下來。還有另一種說法,與推牌九有點關系。原來,牌九(舊時一種賭具)中有“二板”(四個點)和“么五”(六個點)兩張牌,這兩張牌配在一起就是十個點,在推牌九這一賭博活動中,被稱為“斃十”。它在牌九里是最小的點,誰都比它大,它什么牌也“吃”不了,所以人們就用“二板五”(二板和么五的簡稱)這個詞來戲稱什么事也做不好也管不了的人。時間久了,就把“二板五”叫成了“二百五”。在香港,習慣上又稱為“二五仔”。

In daily life, people often call fools or unreasonable speaking, unsatisfactory things, casual things, and good abroad. It is derived from the story of the Warring States Period. Su Qin was a lobbyist during the Warring States Period. He was printed with the six kingdoms and was very prestigious, but also formed a lot of enemies. Later, he was finally killed in Qi State. King Qi was angry and wanted to avenge Su Qin. But he couldn't get the murderer for a while, so he thought of a strategy to make Su Tai's head cut off the body and hung it on the gate of the city. Golden Thousands of Two, looking at the reward. "As soon as the Bangwen posted, four people claimed to kill Su Qin himself. King Qi said, "This is not allowed to pretend!" The four of them stated that they did. King Qi said, "How much do you divide each of the four golds?" Four words replied: "Two hundred and five people." Qi Wang filmed the case and said angrily: "Come, come, two ' 255; 25th 'Push it out! "The word" 25 "passed down like this. There is another saying that it has something to do with Pushing Jiu. It turns out that there are two cards of "two boards" (four points) and "six points" (six points) in the card nine (old gambling). These two cards are equipped with ten points. In a gambling activity, it is called "Ten Ten". It is the smallest point in the card Jiuli, and anyone is larger than it. It can not be "eaten", so people use the word "two boards and five" (the two boards and five for the first). People who can't control it. Over time, I called the "two boards and five" as "two hundred and five". In Hong Kong, it is also called "Two Five Tsai".

  ◆“丫頭”稱呼的由來

◆ The origin of "Girl"

  古代女孩子到了及笄之年,頭上都要梳著兩個“髻”,左右分開,對稱而立,像個“丫”字,所以稱為“丫頭”。唐代劉禹錫《寄贈小樊》詩云:“花面丫頭十三四,春來綽約向人時?!绷硗?,古代婢女經常梳丫髻,所以“丫頭”又成為婢女的稱呼,宋代王洋在《大陽道中題丫頭巖》詩中寫道:“不謂此州無美艷,只嫌名字太粗疏?!辈⒆宰⒄f:“吳楚之人謂婢女為丫頭?!笨赡苡捎凇把绢^”稱呼流行于吳地,北方人不明白,所以王洋寫詩為注。從此以后,“丫頭”稱呼廣泛流行,直至現在有的地區仍在沿用此說。

In the years of the ancient girls, two "buns" had to be combed on their heads, separated from the left and right, and standing symmetrically, like the word "ya", so it was called "girl".Liu Yuxi in the Tang Dynasty "Sending Little Fan" Shiyun: "Flower noodle girls 134, when spring is coming to others." In addition, ancient niece often combed the girl, so "girl" became the name of the niece.The poem in the topic of Dayang Road "" "The state is not beautiful, but the name is too rough." He also said: "Wu Chu's people say that the girl is a girl." It may be because the "girl" is popular in the name.Wu Di, the northerners did not understand, so Wang Yang wrote poetry as a note.Since then, "girls" are widely popular, until now some areas are still using this.

  ◆“黃花閨女”的由來

◆ The origin of "Yellow Flower Girl"

  南朝宋武帝劉裕的女兒壽陽是一位長得非常漂亮的公主。農歷正月初七這天下午,壽陽公主與宮女們在宮廷里嬉戲。她躺臥在含章殿檐下,一陣微風吹來,將臘梅花吹得片片起舞,有幾瓣竟吹落到了壽陽公主的額頭上,留下了斑斑花痕,拂拭不去,壽陽公主反而更加嫵媚動人。從此以后,壽陽公主便經常摘取幾片梅花,粘貼前額,以助美觀,那些宮女們見了,個個稱羨,并跟著仿效起來。這樣打扮,人們把它稱為“梅花妝”,簡稱“梅妝”。由于臘梅有季節性,不能經常保持,于是,宮女們便想方設法采集其他黃色花粉,而后做成涂飾粉料代替臘梅,以便長期使用。大家把這種粉料稱為“花黃”?!懊坊▕y”不久便流傳到了民間,很快受到女孩的喜愛,特別是那些富有大戶的女孩以及歌伎舞女,更是爭相仿效。在當時,人們都認為不貼花黃,就缺少了女性特征。用黃顏色在額上或臉上兩頰畫成各種花紋成為少女的一種必不可少的裝飾。但少女出嫁以后,就要改變這種貼黃的裝飾,別作一番打扮。同時,“黃花”在古代又指菊花,因菊花能傲霜耐寒,常用來比喻人有節操。因此,人們在“閨女”前面加黃花,不僅說明這個女子還沒有結婚,還說明這姑娘心靈美好,品德高尚。這樣,“黃花閨女”就成了未出嫁的年輕女子的代名詞了。

Shouyang, the daughter of Emperor Liu Yu of the Southern Dynasty, was a very beautiful princess. On the afternoon of the seventh day of the first month of the lunar calendar, Princess Shouyang and the palace ladies played in the court. She was lying under the eaves of the chapter, blowing a breeze, blowing the plum blossoms to dance, and a few petals were blowing on the forehead of Princess Shouyang, leaving a spots of flowers, wiping, and longevity. Princess Yang is even more charming. Since then, Princess Shouyang has often picked a few pieces of plum blossoms and pasted the forehead to help the aesthetics. Those maids saw each other, and they were envied and followed. Dressing like this, people call it "plum makeup", referred to as "plum makeup". Because the plum is seasonal and cannot be maintained frequently, the palace girls tried to collect other yellow pollen, and then made it into paint powder instead of Lamei for long -term use. Everyone calls this kind of powder "flower yellow". "Plum Blossom Makeup" has been circulating to the folk soon, and is quickly loved by girls, especially those rich girls and kabrigo dancers, even rushing to follow. At that time, people thought that they did not apply yellow, and they lacked female characteristics. Drawing various patterns on the forehead or face on the forehead or face becomes an indispensable decoration for girls. But after the girl gets married, she must change this kind of yellow decoration, don't dress up. At the same time, the "yellow flower" refers to chrysanthemums in ancient times. Because chrysanthemums can be proud of cold and cold, they are often used to metaphorize people. Therefore, people add yellow flowers in front of the "daughter" not only show that the woman has not got married, but also shows that the girl has a beautiful heart and noble morality. In this way, "Huang Hua Girl" has become synonymous with unmarried young women.

  ◆“老板”的由來

◆ The origin of "boss"

  17世紀初,荷蘭印度公司的殖民主義者開始在現在的紐約市建立貿易站,他們用十分低廉的價錢,買下了許多土地,而后又轉手倒賣給享有采地權的地主們。為了賺更多的錢,不少荷蘭殖民主義者干脆在紐約市定居下來,他們修建房屋,經營農場,從事貿易,在從事這些活動的過程中,荷蘭人將領隊的人稱為“戶主”,而后轉指“監工”,之后又改稱為“監督徒弟的工人師傅”?!斑@個名稱太長了,叫起來不太方便!”“就是嘛,應該短些才好?!薄斑€是叫'上司’吧?!薄安?,我看叫'老板’更好!”一些殖民主義者議論紛紛。經過一番議論,大家一致同意叫“老板”,這個名稱很快就叫開了,隨著時間的推移,這個名稱成了美國的俚語。

At the beginning of the 17th century, colonialists of the Dutch Indian company began to establish trade stations in New York City. They bought a lot of land at a very low price, and then sold to landlords with land acquisition.In order to make more money, many Dutch colonists simply settled in New York City. They built houses, operated farms, and traded.It refers to the "supervisor", and later refers to the "worker master who supervises the disciples"."This name is too long, it is not convenient to call!" "That's right, it should be shorter." "It's still called ' boss '." "No, I think it's called ' boss' moreOkay! "Some colonists have discussed.After some discussions, everyone agreed to call "boss". The name soon opened. Over time, the name became American slang.

  ◆“商人”的由來

◆ The origin of "merchant"

  古往今來,人們為什么把買賣人稱作商人,原來“商人”一詞的由來與我國商業的起源與形成有著一段有趣的故事。在原始社會后期,出現了以物易物的交換活動。到了夏代,在社會上便游離出一部分專門從事交換的人。公元前一千多年,黃河下游居住著一個古老的部落,他們的祖先叫契。由于契在大禹治水時有功,被封為商,這便是古代的商族。契的六世孫王亥聰明多謀很會做生意,經常率領很多奴隸,駕著牛車到黃河北岸去做買賣。一天,王亥在販運貨物途中,突然遭到狄族易氏的襲擊,搶走了貨物和隨從的奴隸,并殺死了王亥。王亥有個兒子叫甲微,聽到父親被害的消息后,便興兵伐易。最后終于滅了易氏,商的勢力也從此擴展到易水流域。到了孫湯商族后裔,商族的手工業已相當發達,特別是紡織業,花色品種優于其他各族。孫湯為了削弱夏的國力,便組織婦女織布紡紗,換取夏的糧食和財富,把貿易作為政治斗爭的武器,最后滅了夏代的統治者夏桀,建立了商朝。商朝農業上定居耕種,手工業等也相當發達。周朝建立后,商族人由統治者一下變成了周朝的種族奴隸。過慣了奢侈生活的商族貴族,每況愈下。商族人為了過上更好的日子,便紛紛重操舊業,到處去跑買賣。久而久之,便在周族人的心目中形成了一個概念,即跑買賣的人都是商族人。后來,慢慢地“族”字也去掉了,簡呼為商人了。這些稱呼一直沿襲至今。

Since ancient times, why people call traders as businessmen, the origin of the word "businessman" has an interesting story with the origin and formation of Chinese business. In the later period of primitive society, exchanges with objects appeared. By the Xia Dynasty, some people who were engaged in exchanges in the society. For more than a thousand BC, an ancient tribe lived in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, and their ancestors were called deeds. Because the Qi had contributed to the water in Dayu, it was named a businessman. This is the ancient businessman. The sixth grandson of the Qi Wang Hai is smart and more conspired. He often leads a lot of slaves and drives a ox cart to the north bank of the Yellow River to buy and sell. One day, Wang Hai was suddenly attacked by the Di Tuban during the trafficking of the goods. Wang Hai had a son named Jia Wei. After hearing the news of his father's victim, he was easy to fight. Finally, the Yi family was destroyed, and the power of the Shang Dynasty expanded to the Yishui Basin. By the descendants of the Sun Tang Shang, the handicraft industry of the Shang family was quite developed, especially the textile industry. The color variety was better than other ethnic groups. In order to weaken Xia's national strength, Sun Tang organized women's weaving spinning, in exchange for Xia's grain and wealth, using trade as a weapon of political struggle, and finally destroying Xia's ruler Xia Yan and established the Shang Dynasty. The Shang Dynasty agriculture settled farming, and the handicraft industry was quite developed. After the establishment of the Zhou Dynasty, the businessmen changed from the rulers to the racial slave of the Zhou Dynasty. The businessmen and nobles who have been used to luxury life are getting worse. In order to live a better life, the businessmen have revisited the old industry and went to buy and sell everywhere. Over time, a concept was formed in the minds of the Zhou people, that is, the people who run and sell were businessmen. Later, the word "clan" was also removed, and Jianhuo was a businessman. These titles have been struck to this day.

  ◆“替罪羊”的由來

◆ The origin of "Sweet Sheep"

  這是一個宗教典故。在基督教的《圣經》(《舊約》)中說,上帝為了考驗亞伯拉罕的忠誠,叫他帶著他的獨生子以撒到一個指定的地方,并把以撒殺了作燔祭,獻給上帝。正當亞伯拉罕要拿刀殺他的兒子時,有個天使加以阻止,說:“現在我知道你是敬畏上帝的了,前面林子里有一只羊,你可用來'祭獻’上帝?!庇谑?,亞伯拉罕便把小樹林中的那只山羊抓來殺了,代替他的兒子獻給燔祭。在《新約》中又說,耶穌為救贖世人的罪惡,寧愿釘死在十字架上,作為“犧牲”(祭品)奉獻天主,并囑咐他的十二門徒,在他死后也照樣去做。因為這是仿效古猶太人在向主求恩免罪時,往往殺一只羔羊替代自己供作“犧牲”,所以教會通常又稱耶穌為贖罪羔羊。有趣的是,在我國古代有以羊代牛受過的記載?!睹献?梁惠王上》中載:“王坐于堂上,有牽牛而過堂下者。王見之,曰:'牛何之?’對曰:'將以釁鐘(注:新鐘鑄成,宰殺牲畜,取血涂鐘的儀式)?!踉唬?#39;舍之!吾不忍其觳棘,若無罪而就死地?!瘜υ唬?#39;然則廢釁鐘歟?’曰:'何可廢也,以羊易之?!饼R宣王不忍心看見??謶謶鹄醯臉幼?,而命以羊替換牛來祭鐘。從此以后,“替罪羊”作為一個悲劇色彩的詞匯就流傳開來。

This is a religious allusion. In Christian's "Bible" ("Old Testament"), in order to test Abraham's loyalty, God told him to bring his only son to a designated place and killed Isaac as a sacrifice to God. When Abraham was going to kill his son with a knife, an angel stopped and said, "Now I know you are in awe of God. There is a sheep in front of the forest, you can use it for ' sacrifice 'God." So Abraham caught the goat in the forest and gave his son to the sacrifice instead of his son. In the "New Testament", Jesus would rather nailed to the cross for the sin of the redeem of the world. Essence Because this is to imitate the ancient Jews when asking the Lord to avoid sin, they often kill a lamb to replace themselves for "sacrifice", so the church is usually called Jesus for the lamb. Interestingly, in ancient my country, there were records that sheep had received with sheep. "Mencius? Liang Hui Shang" contains: "The king is sitting in the hall, and there are people who pass the cattle. Wang Jianzhi, said: ' Zhong (Note: New bell cast, slaughter the livestock, and take blood to apply the clock). However, it is abandoned and provoked? 'Said: ' He can be abolished, and the sheep are easy.' "Qi Xuanwang could not bear to see the cow's fear of shuddering, and ordered the sheep to replace the cow to sacrifice the clock. Since then, "Sweet Sheep" has spread as a tragic vocabulary.

  ◆“傻瓜”的由來

◆ The origin of "Fool"

  人們習慣把愚蠢的人叫“傻瓜”,而不叫“傻果”、“傻豆”或“傻菜”。追究其由來,還有一段奇特的故事。原來“傻瓜”的“瓜”,并非“瓜果菜豆”的“瓜”的意思。在我國古代,秦嶺地區有一地取名“瓜州”,聚居在那里的姓姜的人取族名為“瓜子族”。這一族人非常誠實、肯干,受雇于人時,耕種、推磨樣樣艱苦工作都干,而且干起活來不聲不響。這樣,人們便誤認為他們“愚蠢”,進而便把這類的“愚蠢”之人叫做“瓜子”。一位清代文士寫的《仁恕堂筆記》中便說:“甘州人謂不慧子曰'瓜子’?!备手?即今甘肅)至四川一帶還叫不聰明的人為“瓜子”(即是瓜州的人)?!吧倒稀北闶怯伞肮献印毖葑兌鴣淼?,而后沿用至今。

People are used to calling the stupid people "fools", not "silly fruit", "silly beans" or "silly vegetables".There is also a strange story for investigation.It turns out that the "melon" of "fool" does not mean the "melon" of "fruits and vegetable beans".In ancient my country, there was a place named "Guazhou" in the Qinling area.This family is very honest and willing to do it. When they are hired, they are well -cultivated, and they are working hard, and they are silent.In this way, people mistakenly believe that they are "stupid", and then call this "stupid" person as "melon seeds".In the "Ren Xiu Tang Note" written by a scribe of the Qing Dynasty, "Ganzhou people say that they are not wisdom ' melon seeds.""(That is the people in Guzhou)."Fool" has evolved from the "melon seeds", and the back is used to this day.

  ◆“狗腿子”的由來

◆ The origin of "dog legs"

  現代人養狗漸成風氣,甚至把狗視同自己的孩子。但過去,人們對狗沒有什么好印象,凡是沾“狗”的詞,大都是罵人的,比如“走狗”、“狗仗人勢”、“狗嘴里吐不出象牙”、“狗尾續貂”等等?!肮吠茸印币膊焕?。據傳,從前有個富人的腿斷了,一個奴才為討好主人歡心,主動要求截下自己的腿為主人接上。主人問:“你自己的腿怎么辦呢?”奴才說:“我可以接上一條狗腿?!薄澳枪返耐扔衷趺崔k呢?”“給狗用泥巴捏上一條?!彼?,狗在撒尿時,總要把后邊一條腿翹起來,是怕那條用泥巴捏的腿讓尿給沖掉了。這就是“狗腿子”的來歷。

Modern people have gradually become atmospheric, and even treat dogs at their own children.But in the past, people had no good impression of dogs. Most of the words "dogs" were scolded, such as "walking dogs", "dog fighting people", "no ivory in the dog's mouth", "dog tail continued marten" and so on."Dog legs" are no exception.It is rumored that in the past, a rich man's legs were broken, and a slave took the initiative to intercept his legs for the favor of the host.The owner asked, "What about your own legs?" The slave said, "I can pick up a dog leg." "What should I do if the dog's legs?"When peeing, you always have to lift the leg of the back, and you are afraid that the pinch pinching with mud will be rushed off.This is the origin of "dog legs".

  ◆“三只手”的由來

◆ The origin of "three hands"

  “三只手”這個詞是舶來品,最早見于古羅馬劇作家普勞圖斯的著名喜劇《一壇黃金》。在該劇第四幕第四場中,他氣急敗壞地要奴才伸出手給他看有沒有拿他的金罐,他看了第一只,又看第二只,最后要奴才伸出第“三只手”給他看。以后,“三只手”就成了小偷或偷竊行為的代名詞了。

The word "three hands" is imported, and was first seen in the famous comedy comedy "One Altar Gold" by the ancient Roman drama writer Plausus.In the fourth scene of the fourth act of the show, he was anxious to slavery to show him out to show him if he took his golden tank. He looked at the first one and looked at the second one."Show him.In the future, "three hands" became synonymous with thieves or theft.

  ◆秘書的由來

◆ The origin of the secretary

  在我國古代,秘書是掌管典籍或起草文書的官,自從漢代以來我國封建政權便設有秘書監、秘書郎,三國魏有秘書令、秘書丞,可見“秘書”一詞出現早于“書記”。但秘書并非官名,要在秘書下綴上“令、監、丞、郎”等才是完整的官名。此外尚有“秘書省”,這是南朝梁始設的官署,是行政機關,雖有“秘書”之名,卻無現在秘書之義。為后期沿襲,明清不設此官署,也沒有“秘書”的職稱。清代各衙署設文案,一般稱“師爺”不稱“秘書”。民國時,大多數的行政機關都開始設秘書,可見秘書在我國官制史上還很年輕。秘書這個名稱,原來是指皇家秘密的藏書。東漢桓帝時開始設秘書監這個職官,其實是相當于國家的圖書館長,年俸六百石。實際上的“秘書長”漢初叫“長史”,后來叫“中書侍郎”、“翰林學士”等。幕僚中的“記實”、地方官府的“主簿”,都相當于秘書。擊鼓罵曹的禰衡,就是江夏太守黃祖的秘書,他能寫出黃祖“所欲言而未能言”的內容,是一個出色的秘書工作者。

In ancient my country, the secretary was the official in charge of the classics or drafting documents. Since the Han Dynasty, the feudal regime in my country has a secretary supervisor and secretary Lang. Essence However, the secretary is not the official name. It is the complete official name to decorate "Ling, Supervisor, 丞, Lang" on the secretary. In addition, there is still a "secretary province". This is the official office of the Southern Dynasties. It is an administrative organ. Although it has the name of "secretary", it has no meaning of the secretary. In order to follow in the later period, there was no official office in the Ming and Qing dynasties, and there was no title of "secretary". Each of the Qing Dynasty set up documents, which generally called "Master" not called "secretary". During the Republic of China, most administrative agencies began to set up secretaries, which shows that secretaries were still young in Chinese official history. The name of the secretary originally refers to the royal secret collection. In the Emperor Emperor Emperor Emperor Emperor, he began to set up a secretary supervisor. In fact, he was equivalent to the national library chief, with 600 stones in the year. In fact, the "Secretary -General" was called "Changshi" in the early Han Dynasty, and later was called "Zhongshu Shi Lang" and "Bachelor of Hanlin". The "remembrance" in the staff and the "main book" of the local government are equivalent to the secretary. The drumming and scolding Cao Heng is the secretary of Jiang Xia's eunuch Huang Zu. He can write the content of Huang Zu's "what he wants to speak and fail to speak". He is an excellent secretary and worker.

  ◆時裝模特的由來

◆ The origin of fashion models

  意大利的米蘭是世界的時裝之都,每年時裝展覽會都吸引了大批的游客。除了時裝外,意大利也是盛產國際名模的地方。時裝模特發展到了今天,經歷了漫長時期。1573年,意大利修道士圣?馬樂爾柯用木料和粘土制作了一個類似玩偶的人體模型,并用零碎的麻布加以裝飾。這種早期的人體模型很快傳入法國。后來,巴黎的一位女裁縫利用這種人體模型向顧客展示新式服裝,收到了意想不到的效果,結果,其他女裁縫爭相仿效。當時,人們稱這種穿上時裝的人體模型為“時裝模特”。真正人體時裝模特發蒙者是英國時裝設計大師沃恩,據說,他20歲時來到法國巴黎,在一個新式服裝店當銷售員。1846年,他為推銷一種披肩服裝,讓店里漂亮的小姐瑪麗?韋爾納穿上招待顧客,結果取得成功,瑪麗也成為他的妻子。從1851年起,他為瑪麗設計了許多服裝,因而贏得了大量顧客,以后在巴黎又以“沃恩”為名開了一家自己的服裝店,并雇了幾個年輕女子專做招待顧客的工作,服裝生意相當興隆,使得許多服裝商紛紛效仿。于是,女模特便很快在法國大批量出現,并迅速遍及了歐洲。據說,這就是第一位時裝模特的由來。

Milan in Italy is the capital of the world, and every year fashion exhibitions have attracted a large number of tourists. In addition to fashion, Italy is also a place for international supermodels. Fashion models have developed to this day and have gone through a long period of time. In 1573, the Italian monk Maleko made a doll -like human model with wood and clay, and was decorated with fragmented hemp cloth. This early human model was quickly introduced into France. Later, a female tailor in Paris used this human model to show customers new clothing and received unexpected results. As a result, other women's tailor fought against each other. At that time, it was called the "fashion model" that wearing a fashion human model. The real human fashion model is the master of British fashion design. It is said that he came to Paris, France at the age of 20 to be a salesperson in a new clothing store. In 1846, he wore a beautiful lady Mary Welna in the store to promote a hospitality to sell a shawl clothing. As a result, Mary also became his wife. Since 1851, he has designed many clothing for Mary, so he has won a large number of customers. Later, he opened a clothing store in Paris in Paris and hired a few young women to make special entertaining customers for customers. Working, clothing business is quite prosperous, making many clothing companies follow suit. As a result, female models quickly appeared in France and quickly spread to Europe. It is said that this is the origin of the first fashion model.

  ◆護士的由來

◆ The origin of nurse

  護士在醫院出現的時間并不長。19世紀初,英國雖然設立了許多較大規模的醫院,但還沒有專門的護士,只是由仆役兼管一些護理工作。1836年德國有一位青年宗教人士開設了一所醫院,并訓練了一批年輕的姑娘專門負責病人的護理工作,這就是最早的護士。在1852年到1856年間,沙皇俄國與土耳其之間發生在克里米亞的戰爭,雙方傷亡慘重,大量的傷病員無人照顧。當時,英國有一位具有醫學專業知識的女士名叫佛洛倫斯?南丁格爾,她自愿組織戰地救護隊,率領38名女救護隊員負責傷病員的護理,在她的領導下,建立了醫院管理制度,提高了護理質量,使傷病員死亡率迅速下降。1860年,她又在英國的圣多馬醫院辦起世界上第一所護士學校。每年的5月12日,是國際護士節。這就是為了紀念近代護理學科創始人佛洛倫斯?南丁格爾(1820~1910)而設立的。不久,許多國家都相繼開辦了專門的護士學校。以后由于護士教育與技術水準的提高,各大醫院都設有??谱o士,各大醫院也都有一批護士在從事對病人的護理工作了。

Nurses did not appear in the hospital for a long time. At the beginning of the 19th century, although the Britain set up many large -scale hospitals, there were no special nurse, but they were just care and some nursing work. In 1836, a young religious person in Germany opened a hospital and trained a group of young girls to be responsible for the care of patients. This is the earliest nurse. Between 1852 and 1856, a war between Crimea between Tsar and Russia and Turkey. The two sides were seriously casualties and a large number of wounded people were not taking care of. At that time, a lady with medical professional knowledge named Florence Nandergle, who was in Britain, voluntarily organized the battlefield ambulance team and led 38 female ambulance members to be responsible for the nursing of the wounded. Under her leadership, she established The hospital management system was improved, which improved the quality of nursing and caused the mortality rate of wounded patients to rapidly decrease. In 1860, she held the world's first nursing school in San Doma Hospital in the UK. On May 12, each year is the International Nursing Festival. This is established to commemorate Florens Nightingle (1820 ~ 1910), the founder of modern nursing disciplines. Soon, many countries have opened special nurse schools. In the future, due to the improvement of nurse education and technical standards, major hospitals have specialized nurses, and major hospitals have a group of nurses engaged in nursing patients.

  ◆記者的由來

◆ The origin of the reporter

  記者作為一種職業是在歐洲威尼斯誕生的。16世紀的威尼斯是歐洲的經濟中心,各國商人、銀行家以至達官貴人等紛紛來到這里,進行商務活動。他們迫切需要了解和掌握來自世界各地的消息。這樣,有些人便投其所好,專門采集有關政治事務、物價行情、船只抵達起航等方面的消息,或手抄成單卷,或刊刻成冊,然后公開出售。人們根據這種工作的特點,分別稱他們為報告記者、手書新聞記者、報紙記者。這些專以采集和出賣新聞為生的人,就是世界上最早的職業記者。我國19世紀70年代開始有專職的采訪記者,起初叫“訪員”、“訪事”、“報事人”,19世紀90年代開始采用“記者”這種稱謂。

The reporter was born in Venice, Europe.In the 16th century, Venice was the European economic center. Merchants, bankers, and even nobles from various countries came here for business activities.They urgently need to understand and master news from around the world.In this way, some people vote for them, and specially collect news about political affairs, price quotes, and ships that reach sailing, or copy them into single volumes, or publish them, and then sell them publicly.Based on the characteristics of this work, people call them reporters, handwriting journalists, and newspaper reporters.These people who live and sell news are the earliest professional journalists in the world.my country began to have full -time interviewers in the 1970s in the 1970s. At first, it was called "interviewers", "interviews", and "reporters". In the 1990s, the title of "reporter" began.

  四、飲食類

Four, Diet

  ◆冰糖葫蘆的由來

◆ The origin of rock sugar gourd

  冰糖葫蘆,酸甜適口,老少皆宜,它不僅好吃,而且還十分好看,紅彤彤的山楂果按大小排列穿在竹簽子上,外面裹著晶瑩透明的糖稀,出售它的人往往把一只只糖葫蘆串插在特制的木棍上,像一顆結滿碩果的小樹,煞是誘人。提起冰糖葫蘆的來歷,還得說說南宋的宋光宗皇帝呢。那是南宋紹熙年間,宋光宗最寵愛的黃貴妃生了怪病,她突然變得面黃肌瘦,不思飲食。御醫用了許多貴重藥品,都不見效。眼見貴妃一日日病重起來,皇帝無奈,只好張榜招醫。一位江湖郎中揭榜進宮,他在為貴妃診脈后說:“只要將'棠球子’(即山楂)與紅糖煎熬,每飯前吃5~10枚,半月后病準會好?!辟F妃按此方服用后,果然如期病愈了。于是龍顏大悅,命如法炮制。后來,這酸脆香甜的山楂傳到民間,就成了冰糖葫蘆。

Rock sugar gourd, sweet and sour taste, suitable for all ages, it is not only delicious, but also very beautiful. The red hawthorn fruit is arranged on the bamboo stick according to the size.The sugar gourd skewers are inserted on the special wooden stick, like a small tree full of fruit, which is seductive.When it comes to the origin of rock sugar gourd, it is necessary to talk about the Emperor Song Guangzong of the Southern Song Dynasty.It was Huang Guifei, the most loved Huang Guifei of Song Guangzong during the Shaoxi reign of the Southern Song Dynasty. She suddenly became yellow and thin and did not think about her diet.There are many valuable medicines for Royal Medicine, and they are not effective.Seeing that the concubine was seriously ill, the emperor had no choice but to recruit the doctor.A Jianghu Lang was unveiled into the palace. After the diagnosis of the concubine, he said: "Just put the ' Tang Ballon '(that is, hawthorn) and brown sugar tortured. Eat 5-10 pieces before each meal.. "After taking this prescription, the concubine healed as scheduled.So Long Yan was happy, and his life was like the law.Later, this crispy and sweet hawthorn passed to the people and became a rock sugar gourd.

  ◆年糕的由來

◆ The origin of rice cakes

  春節,我國很多地區都講究吃年糕。年糕又稱“年年糕”,與“年年高”諧音,意寓人們的工作和生活一年比一年提高。年糕作為一種食品,在我國具有悠久的歷史。1974年,考古工作者在浙江余姚河姆渡母系氏族社會遺址中發現了稻種,這說明早在七千年前我們的祖先就已經開始種植稻谷。漢朝人對米糕就有“稻餅”“餌”、“糍”等多種稱呼。古人對米糕的制作也有一個從米粒糕到粉糕的發展過程。公元六世紀的食譜《食次》就載有年糕“白繭糖”的制作方法,“熟炊秫稻米飯,及熱于杵臼凈者,舂之為米咨糍,須令極熟,勿令有米?!奔磳⑴疵渍羰煲院?,趁熱舂成米咨,然后切成桃核大小,晾干油炸,滾上糖即可食用。將米磨粉制糕的方法也很早。這一點可從北魏賈思勰的《齊民要術》中得到證明。其制作方法是,將糯米粉用絹羅篩過后,加水、蜜和成硬一點的面團,將棗和栗子等貼在粉團上,用箬葉裹起蒸熟即成。這種糯米糕點頗具中原特色。年糕多用糯米磨粉制成,而糯米是江南的特產,在北方沒有糯米那樣粘性的谷物,古來首推黏黍(俗稱小黃米)。這種黍脫殼磨粉,加水蒸熟后,又黃、又粘、而且還甜,是黃河流域人民慶豐收的美食。明崇禎年間刊刻的《帝京景物略》一文中記載當時的北京人每于“正月元旦,啖黍糕,曰年年糕”。不難看出,“年年糕”是北方的“粘粘糕”諧音而來。據說最早年糕是為年夜祭神、歲朝供祖先所用,后來才成為春節食品。年糕不僅是一種節日美食,而且歲歲為人們帶來新的希望。正如清末的一首詩中所云:“人心多好高,諧聲制食品,義取年勝年,籍以祈歲稔?!?/p>

In the Spring Festival, many areas of my country pay attention to eating rice cakes. Rice cakes, also known as "annual cakes", are homophonic with "high year", which means that people's work and life increase year by year. As a food, rice cake has a long history in my country. In 1974, archaeologists found rice seeds in the Social Society of the Memu Du Clan in Yuyao, Zhejiang, which shows that as early as seven thousand years ago, our ancestors had begun to plant rice. The Han Dynasty people had a variety of names such as "rice cakes", "bait", "糍". The ancients' production of rice cake also had a development process from rice cakes to powder cakes. The recipe "Food" in the sixth century contains the production method of the rice cake "white cocoon sugar". There are rice grains ... "After the glutinous rice is about to steam, it will be cooked into rice while it is hot, and then cut into a peach core size, dry and fry, and roll it with sugar to eat. The method of making rice grinding cake is also very early. This can be proven from the "Qi Min Yao Shu" in the Northern Wei Dynasty. The method of making is to sieve the glutinous rice flour with silk, add water, honey, and hard dough, stick jujube and chestnuts on the powder ball, wrap them in a steamed leaves. This glutinous rice cake dots have the characteristics of the Central Plains. Rice cakes are mostly made of glutinous rice grinding, while glutinous rice is a specialty of Jiangnan. There is no sticky grain like glutinous rice in the north. In ancient times, it was first promoted (commonly known as small yellow rice). This kind of shelling and grinding, after steaming with water, it is yellow, sticky, and sweet. It is the food of the people's celebration of the people in the Yellow River Basin. In the article "Emperor Jing Jingwing" published during the Ming Chongzhen period, the Beijingers at the time at that time on the "New Year's Day, the cake, and the rice cake" at the time. It is not difficult to see that the "annual cake" comes from the "sticky cake" in the north. It is said that the earliest cakes were used for the New Year's Day and the ancestors were used for the ancestors. Later, it became the Spring Festival food. Rice cake is not only a festive food, but also brings new hope for people year. Just as a poem in the late Qing Dynasty: "How high the hearts of the people, the harmonious food, the year of the righteousness, and the prayer of the year."

  ◆巧克力的由來

◆ The origin of chocolate

  最早出現的巧克力,起源于墨西哥地區古代印第安人的一種含可可粉的食物,它的味道苦而辣。后來大約在16世紀,西班牙人讓巧克力“甜”起來,他們將可可粉及香料拌和在蔗汁中,成了香甜飲料。到了1876年,一位名叫彼得的瑞士人別出心裁,在上述飲料中再摻入一些牛奶,這才完成了現代巧克力創制的全過程。不久之后,又有人想到,將液體巧克力加以脫水濃縮成一塊塊便于攜帶和保存的巧克力糖。

The earliest chocolate, which originated from the ancient Indians in Mexico, a kind of cocoa powder, which tastes bitter and spicy.Later, in the 16th century, the Spaniards made the chocolate "sweet". They mixed cocoa powder and spices and in cane juice to become sweet drinks.By 1876, a Swiss named Peter was ingenious and mixed with some milk in the above beverages, which completed the entire process of modern chocolate creation.Soon after, some people thought that the liquid chocolate was dehydrated and condensed into a piece of chocolate sugar that is convenient for carrying and saving.

  ◆北京烤鴨的由來

◆ The origin of Beijing roast duck

  烤鴨的祖先是西方的烤鵝??均Z技術被兩次傳入中國,一次是在元朝,一次是在清朝。元朝的時候,蒙古帝國占領了很大的地盤,從中國的東部,到地中海地區,都是他的地盤。所以西方人如馬可波羅可以到中國來。他們帶來了不少西方的文化,包括大炮,也包括烤鵝。在元大都就有了烤鴨店。為什么從烤鵝變成烤鴨?這是因為鴨子是中國的特產。在清朝末年,烤鴨的方法改變了,從燜爐改為掛爐,而且吃法也帶有明顯的山東的特色,實際上烤鴨店就是山東榮城人開辦的。其特點是用餅、大蔥或黃瓜、醬和鴨子一起吃。餅卷大蔥黃瓜和醬,是山東最常吃的東西。而且這時候,烤鴨的鴨子也從一般鴨子變成填鴨。填鴨的方法也來自歐洲烤鵝的方法。

The ancestors of the roast duck were western roast goose.The grilled goose technology was introduced to China twice, once in the Yuan Dynasty, once in the Qing Dynasty.During the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongolian Empire occupied a large site, from the eastern part of China to the Mediterranean region, all his territories.So Westerners can come to China like Marco Polo.They brought a lot of western culture, including cannons, and roast goose.There are roast duck restaurants in Yuan Dadu.Why does it change from roast goose to roast duck? This is because ducks are Chinese specialty.In the end of the Qing Dynasty, the method of roast duck changed, changed from the sting of the furnace to the furnace, and the method of eating also had obvious characteristics of Shandong. In fact, the roast duck shop was opened by Shandong Rongcheng.It is characterized by cakes, green onions or cucumbers, sauce and ducks.Cake rolls onion, cucumber and sauce, are the most commonly eaten things in Shandong.And at this time, the roast duck ducks also changed from ordinary ducks to duck.The method of filling duck is also from European roasted goose.

  ◆糖炒栗子的由來

◆ The origin of the chestnut fried chestnut

  糖炒栗子是京津一帶別具地方風味的著名食品,也是具有悠久傳統的美味。南宋時,陸游在《老學庵笑記》中曾記述這樣一段動人的故事。他說:“故都(指北宋的汴京,即今開封)李和炒菜,名聞四方,他人百計效之,終不可及?!苯又鴮懙溃骸敖B興中,陳福公及錢上閣,出使虜庭,至燕山,忽有兩人持炒栗各十裹來改……自贊曰:'李和兒也?!瘬]涕而去?!睋丝梢酝浦?,汴京的炒菜專家李和在外族人侵時家破業敝,他的兒子帶著炒栗的絕技流落燕山。他用獻給故國使者的栗子,表達自己對統一祖國的熱望。

Sugar -fried chestnuts are famous foods with unique local flavors in the Beijing and Tianjin area, and they also have a long and traditional deliciousness.During the Southern Song Dynasty, Lu You once described such a moving story in "Lao Xue's Laughs".He said: "Therefore, the capital (referring to the Jingjing of the Northern Song Dynasty, today Kaifeng) Li He stir -fry, famous forces, others can do everything possible, and finally wrote:" In Shaoxing, Chen Fugong and Qian went to the pavilion, out of the pavilion, and out of the pavilion, out of the pavilion, out of the pavilion, out of the pavilion, and out of the pavilion.Musicing the court, to Yanshan, suddenly two people changed the ten wraps with fried chestnuts ... praise: ' Li Heer also.Expert Li He broke his career when he was invaded by a foreigner, and his son flowed with the stunts with fried chestnuts.He used the chestnuts dedicated to the messenger of his country to express his popularity of the unified motherland.

  ◆臭豆腐的由來

◆ The origin of stinky tofu

  臭豆腐很有名氣,究其來歷有段“古”:清康熙八年,安徽仙源縣舉子王致和赴京考試落第,又無盤纏返鄉。王家原以做豆腐饣胡口,王致和亦懂此手藝,于是留京以磨豆腐謀生。一日,遇到豆腐滯銷,積存不少,王生怕豆腐變壞,血本無歸,便將豆腐切成小塊,配以鹽香料,置于壇中,并封其口,以為這樣便可造出腐乳來。誰知過了一些日子壇口打開,腐乳做不出來,豆腐臭氣熏天。王生試嘗之,其味鮮美。遂將此臭豆腐試銷,竟也獲得顧客好評,臭豆腐從此流傳開去,到了清末,臭豆腐已是大行其道。

Stinky tofu is very famous. The origin of its origin is "ancient": Eight years in Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty, Wang Zhi Zhi Zhi Zhi Zhi Zhi Zhi Zhi and went to Beijing Exam , and returned to his hometown without a plate.Wang Jiayuan used tofu to be tofu, and Wang Zhihe also understood this craft, so he stayed in Beijing to make a living with tofu.One day, when the tofu was slow, there was a lot of accumulation. Wang Sheng was afraid that the tofu would deteriorate, and the blood was not returned.Creamy milk.Who knows that after some days, the altar is opened, the bean curd cannot be made, and the tofu smells the sky.Wang Sheng tried it, and its taste was delicious.Then the trial sales of this stinky tofu were also well received by customers. Stinky tofu spread from then on. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, stinky tofu was popular.

  ◆豆腐的由來

◆ The origin of tofu

  1959年到1960年間,在河南密縣打虎亭曾發掘了兩座漢墓。一號漢墓中,有大面積的畫像石,其中有豆腐坊石刻。這是一幅把豆類進行加工、制成副食品的生產圖像??脊艑<艺J為,此刻畫可以證明,中國豆腐的制作不會晚于東漢末期?;茨咸檬俏覈茨弦患叶垢坏拿?,據傳原是為了紀念豆腐的發明人——漢代淮南王劉安而起的。堂堂淮南王怎么會發明豆腐呢?原來劉安講求黃老之術,在淮南朝夕修煉。陪伴他的僧道,常年吃素,為了改善生活,就悉心研制出了鮮美的豆腐,并把他獻給劉安享用。劉安一嘗,果然好吃,下令大量制作。這樣,豆腐的發明權就記在淮南王劉安的名下了。

From 1959 to 1960, two Han tombs were excavated in Midi County, Henan.Among the No. 1 Han tombs, there are large area of portrait stones, including tofu house stone carvings.This is a production image that processes the beans and made into a non -staple food.Archaeological experts believe that the technology can prove that the production of Chinese tofu will not be later than the late Eastern Han Dynasty.Huainan Hall is the name of a tofu house in Huainan, my country. It is rumored to commemorate the inventor of the tofu, the King of Huainan Liu An in the Han Dynasty.How could King Huainan invented tofu? It turned out that Liu An gave the technique of Huang Lao and practiced on the day of Huainan.The monk who accompanied him all year round, in order to improve his life, he carefully developed a beautiful tofu and dedicated him to Liu An to enjoy it.When Liu An tasted, it was delicious and ordered a lot of production.In this way, the invention of tofu is recorded in the name of King Huainan Liu An.

  ◆火鍋的由來

◆ The origin of hot pot

  我國的火鍋,歷史悠久,源遠流長。浙江等地曾出土五千多年前的與陶釜配套使用的小陶灶,可以很方便地移動,可以算是火鍋初級形式。北京延慶縣龍慶峽山戎文化遺址中出土的春秋時期青銅火鍋,有加熱過的痕跡。奴隸社會后期,出現了一種小銅鼎,高不超過20厘米,口徑15厘米左右。有的鼎與爐合二為一,即在鼎中鑄有一個隔層,將鼎腹分為上下兩部分,下層有一個開口,可以送入炭火,四周鏤空作通風的煙孔。有的鼎腹較淺,鼎中間夾一炭盤,人們稱這種類型的鼎為“溫鼎”,它小巧便利,可以說是一種較好的火鍋了。漢代出現一種稱為“染爐”、“染杯”的小銅器,構造分為三部分:主體為炭爐;上面有盛食物的杯,容積一般為250~300毫升;下面有承接炭火的盤??梢酝茢噙@就是古代單人使用的小火鍋。唐宋時,火鍋開始盛行,官府和名流家中設宴,多備火鍋。大詩人白居易喜歡邀友至家吟詩賦詞,他的那首“綠蟻新醅酒,紅泥小火爐,晚來天欲雪,能飲一杯無?”中的“紅泥小火爐”,即是唐代流行的一種陶制火鍋。在五代時,就出現過五格火鍋,就是將火鍋分成五格供客人涮用。那時的火鍋又稱暖鍋,一種是銅制的,一種是陶制的,主要作用是煮肉來食用。到了清代,各種涮肉火鍋已成為宮廷冬令佳肴。嘉慶皇帝登基時,在盛大的宮廷宴席中,除山珍海味、水陸并陳外,特地用了1650只火鍋宴請嘉賓,成為我國歷史上最盛大的火鍋宴。

my country's hot pot has a long history and a long history. Zhejiang and other places have been unearthed more than 5,000 years ago. The small pottery stoves used with pottery kettles can be easily moved and can be regarded as the primary form of hot pot. The bronze hot pot unearthed in the cultural site of Longqingxiashan Rong, Yanqing County, Beijing has traces of heating. In the late stages of slave society, a small copper tripod appeared, no more than 20 cm high, and the caliber was about 15 cm. Some Ding and the furnace are two, that is, there is a partition layer in the Dingzhong, which divides the belly into the upper and lower parts. There is a opening in the lower layer that can be sent into charcoal fire. Some tripods are lighter, and the middle of the tripod is clamped with a charcoal plate. People call this type of tripod "Wen Ding". It is small and convenient. It can be said to be a good hot pot. A small bronze ware called "stove" and "dyeing cup" appeared in the Han Dynasty. The structure is divided into three parts: the main body is a charcoal furnace; there is a cup of food on it, the volume is generally 250-300 ml; The disk. It can be inferred that this is the small hot pot used in ancient single people. During the Tang and Song dynasties, the hot pot began to prevail, and the government and celebrities had a banquet in the celebrities and prepared more hot pot. The great poet Bai Juyi likes to invite friends to home to the poetry poetry. His song "green ant new wine, red mud small stove, come to the sky in the evening, can drink a cup of red mud", It is a kind of pottery hot pot popular in the Tang Dynasty. In the fifth generation, five grid hot pot appeared, which was to divide the hot pot into five grids for guests. At that time, the hot pot was also called warm pot, one was made of copper, and the other was made of pottery. The main role was to cook meat to eat. In the Qing Dynasty, all kinds of meat -shabu hotpot had become a court winter dish. When the Emperor Jiaqing ascended the throne, in the grand court banquet, except for the mountains and sea flavor, the water and land, and the water and land, he specially used the 1650 hot pot banquet to invite guests to become the largest hot pot banquet in the history of our country.

  ◆涮羊肉的由來

◆ The origin of mutton

  史書記載,涮羊肉最早始于我國東北和蒙古少數民族地區,原稱“涮鍋”。據說,涮羊肉的起源之一與元世祖忽必烈有關。相傳七百多年前,忽必烈在北征途中,忽然想起清燉羊肉了。廚師急忙殺羊剝皮,剔骨割肉。這時,探馬報道:“敵軍鋪天蓋地而來,離此不遠了?!北F神速,眼看清燉羊肉吃不上了,聰明的廚師想出一個辦法,他在羊肉上揀了一個好部位,切成薄片,放在煮沸的水中,用飯勺草草地攪一下,便急急忙忙撈在碗里,加了點鹽,送到忽必烈的面前,忽必烈饑不擇食,飽餐了一頓,感到這肉片格外鮮嫩。待忽必烈勝利返朝后,重賞了廚師,問清了這種羊肉片的烹調技術,御賜菜名為“涮羊肉”。

Historical records recorded that mutton began in the northeast and Mongolian ethnic minorities in the northeast and Mongolian ethnic minorities. It was originally called "shabu -shabu".It is said that one of the origin of mutton is related to Yuan Shizu Kublai Khan.According to legend, more than 700 years ago, Kublai Khan suddenly remembered the stew of lamb during the north.The chef hurriedly killed the sheep peeling and cut the meat.At this time, Dama reported: "The enemy's army is overwhelming, not far from this." The soldiers were so fast that it couldn't eat the stewed mutton. The clever chef came up with a way.Thin slices, put it in boiling water, stir with a spoon of rice, and hurriedly fish in the bowl, add some salt, and send it to Kublai Khan's hunger.It is particularly tender.After the victory of Sudako returned to the DPRK, he rewarded the chef and asked the cooking technology of this kind of lamb slices.

  ◆“比薩餅”的由來

◆ The origin of "Pizza"

  “Pizza”,即比薩餅是意大利的著名食品。凡到過意大利的人,一定要品嘗一下比薩餅。剛從紅通通的爐膛里烤出的比薩餅,色鮮、味濃、外焦里嫩、香氣誘人。關于比薩餅的來歷,人們一般認為它于公元1600年誕生在那不勒斯。傳說,當地有一位母親,因家里貧困,只剩下一點點面粉,正在為給孩子做點什么東西吃而發愁。鄰居們得知后,湊來了一點西紅柿和水牛奶酪。這位母親就將面粉和成面團烙成餅,將西紅柿切碎涂在上面,再把水牛奶酪弄碎撒上,然后放在火上烤,就成了香噴噴的比薩餅。如今比薩餅為世人所喜愛,并走進了中國。

"Pizza", that is, Big Sa is a famous food in Italy.Those who have reached Italy must taste Bisa Cake.The pizza that just roasted from the red furnaces, fresh, strong, tender in the outer coke, and seductive aroma.Regarding the origin of Bisa cakes, people generally believe that it was born in Naples in 1600 AD.Legend has it that a local mother, because of the poverty in the family, only has a little flour, and is worrying about doing something for the children.When the neighbors learned, they came up with a little tomato and water cheese.The mother made the flour and dough into a cake, chopped the tomatoes on it, and then shattered the water cheese, and then baked it on the fire, becoming a fragrant pizza cake.Now Pizza is loved by the world and has entered China.

  ◆春卷的由來

◆ The origin of spring rolls

  春卷在我國有著悠久的歷史,北方人也稱為“春餅”。據傳在東晉時代就有。那時叫“春盤”。當時人們每到立春這一天,就將面粉制成的薄餅攤在盤中,加上精美蔬菜食用,故稱“春盤”。那時不僅立春這一天食用,春游時人們也帶上“春盤”。到了唐宋時,這種風氣更為盛行。著名詩人杜甫的“春日春盤細生菜”和陸游的“春日春盤節物新”的詩句,都真實地反映了唐宋時期人們這一生活習俗。在唐代,春盤又叫五辛盤。明代李時珍說:“以蔥、蒜、韭、蓼、蒿、芥辛嫩之菜雜和食之,謂之五辛盤?!币院蟠罕P、五辛盤又演變為春餅。宋朝吳自牧在《夢梁錄》中這樣描述:“常熟糍糕,餛飩瓦鈴兒,春餅、菜餅、圓子湯?!钡搅饲宕?,富家或士庶之家,也多食春餅。清代富察敦崇在《燕京歲時記?打春》中記載:“是日富家多食春餅,婦女等多買蘿卜而食之,曰咬春,謂可以卻春鬧也?!边@樣,吃春餅逐漸成了一種傳統習俗,以圖吉祥如意,消災去難。隨著烹調技術的發展和提高,“春餅”又演變成為小巧玲瓏的春卷了。這時它不僅成為民間小吃,而且也成為宮廷糕點,登上大雅之堂。在清朝宮廷中的“滿漢全席”128種菜點中,春卷是九道主要點心之一。

Spring rolls have a long history in our country, and northerners are also called "spring cakes". It is rumored to be in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. It was called "Spring Plate" at that time. At that time, on the day of Lichun, the pancakes made of flour are spread on the plate, and the exquisite vegetables are eaten, so they are called "spring disks". At that time, not only did the beginning of the spring, but people also brought the "spring disk" during the spring tour. By the Tang and Song dynasties, this atmosphere was even more prevalent. The poem of the famous poet Du Fu's "Spring Day and Spring Drive" and Lu You's "Spring Festival Spring Festival" verses truly reflect the living customs of people during the Tang and Song dynasties. In the Tang Dynasty, the spring plate was also called Wuxin Pan. Li Shizhen of the Ming Dynasty said: "Onions, garlic, leeks, 蓼, artemisia, and mustard tender dishes and eclipse are called the five sibling." In the Song Dynasty, Wu Zimu described in "Menglianglu": "Changshu cakes, ravioli bells, spring cakes, vegetable cakes, and Yuanzi soup." In the Qing Dynasty, rich family or scholars' home, also eaten more spring cakes. In the Qing Dynasty, Fucha Dunchong recorded in "Yanjing Year of the year? Playing Spring": "It is the Japanese rich home to eat spring cakes, women, etc. buy more radishes and eat it. Eating spring cakes has gradually become a traditional custom, with auspiciousness and good fortune, it is difficult to eliminate disasters. With the development and improvement of cooking technology, the "spring cake" has evolved into a small and exquisite spring roll. At this time, it not only became a folk snack, but also a palace pastry, ascending the elegant hall. Among the 128 kinds of "Manchu Manchu" in the court of the Qing Dynasty, the spring roll was one of the nine main snacks.

  ◆月餅的由來

◆ The origin of moon cakes

  據說,月餅在唐代就曾出現,至宋代更盛。它是中秋佳節祭拜月亮時最主要的物品,祭供后由全家分食。由于月餅象征團圓,有些地方稱為“團圓餅”?!堆嗑q時記?月餅》載:“供月月餅,到處皆有,大者尺余,上繪月亮蟾兔之形。有祭畢而食者,有留至除夕而食者?!碧K東坡詩云:“小餅如嚼月,中有酥和飴?!鼻宄瘲罟廨o的《淞南采府》寫道:“月餅飽裝桃肉餡,雪糕甜砌蔗糖霜?!笨磥懋敃r的月餅已和現在的月餅頗為相近。

It is said that moon cakes have appeared in the Tang Dynasty, and they were even more prosperous in the Song Dynasty.It is the most important item when worshiping the moon in the Mid -Autumn Festival.Because moon cakes symbolize reunion, some places are called "reunion cakes"."Yanjing Shi Ji? Mooncake" contains: "For moon cakes, there are everywhere, there are more than a ruler, and the shape of the moon toad rabbit is painted on the top.Shiyun: "The small cakes are chewing the moon, there are crispy and crickets." Yang Guangfu's "Songnan Caifu" in the Qing Dynasty wrote: "Moon cakes are filled with peach meat filling, ice cream sweet sugar brushed." It seems that the moon cakes at that time have already beenThe current moon cake is quite similar.

  ◆過橋米線的由來

◆ The origin of the bridge rice noodles

  過橋米線已有一百多年歷史,源于滇南蒙自。傳說蒙自縣城的南湖的風景優美,常有文墨客攻書讀詩于此。有位楊秀才,經常去湖心亭內攻讀,其妻每日備飯菜送往該處。秀才讀書刻苦,往往學而忘食,以至常食冷飯涼菜,身體日見不支。其妻焦慮心疼,思忖之余把家中母雞殺了,用砂鍋燉熟,給他送去。許時待她再去收碗筷時,看見送去的食物原封未動,丈夫仍如癡如呆在一旁看書。當她拿砂鍋時卻發現還燙乎乎的,揭開蓋子,原來湯表面覆蓋著一層雞油?加之陶土器皿傳熱不快,把熱量封存在湯內。以后其妻就用此法保溫,另將一些米、蔬菜、肉片放在熱雞湯中燙熟,趁熱給丈夫食用。后來不少人都仿效她的這種創新烹制,烹調出來的米線確實鮮美可口,由于從楊秀才家到湖心亭要經過一座小橋,大家就把這種吃法稱之“過橋米線”。經過歷代滇味廚師不斷改進創新,“過橋米線”聲譽日著,享譽海內外,成為云南的一道著名小吃。

The bridge rice noodles have a history of more than 100 years, which originated from Mongolian in southern Yunnan. Legend has it that the landscape of Nanhu in the county seat is beautiful, and Wenmo guests often read poems. One Yang Xiucai often went to the Huxin Pavilion to study, and his wife prepared a daily meals to be sent to the place. Xiucai is studying hard, often learning and forgetting to eat, so that he often eats cold rice and cold dishes. His wife was anxious and distressed, and he killed the hens in the family, stewed it with a casserole, and sent him. When Xu stayed with her to collect the chopsticks, she saw the food she had sent to her, and her husband was still reading a book. When she took the casserole, she found that she was still hot. It was opened. The surface of the soup was covered with a layer of chicken oil? In addition, the pottery utensils were not hot, and the heat was sealed in the soup. In the future, his wife will use this method to heat up, and put some rice, vegetables, and meat slices in the hot chicken soup and cook it, and eat it while it is hot. Later, many people imitated her innovative cooking, and the rice noodles that were cooked were really delicious. Because from Yang Xiucai's home to Huxin Pavilion, they had to pass a small bridge, and everyone called the "bridge rice noodles crossing the bridge. "". After the continuous improvement of the Dianwei chefs in the past, the reputation of the "crossing the bridge" is well -known at home and abroad. It has become a famous snack in Yunnan.

  ◆餃子的由來

◆ The origin of dumplings

  餃子源于古代的角子。早在三國時期,魏張揖所著的《廣雅》一書中,就提到這種食品。據考證:它是由南北朝至唐朝時期的“偃月形餛飩”和南宋時的“燥肉雙下角子”發展而來的,距今已有一千四百多年的歷史了。清朝有關史料記載說;“元旦子時,盛饌同離,如食扁食,名角子,取其更歲交子之義?!庇终f:“每屆初一,無論貧富貴賤,皆以白面做餃食之,謂之煮餑餑,舉國皆然,無不同也。富貴之家,暗以金銀小錁藏之餑餑中,以卜順利,家人食得者,則終歲大吉?!边@說明新春佳節人們吃餃子,寓意吉利,以示辭舊迎新。近人徐珂編的《清稗類鈔》中說:“中有餡,或謂之粉角——而蒸食煎食皆可,以水煮之而有湯叫做水餃?!鼻О倌陙?,餃子做為賀歲食品,受到人們喜愛,相沿成習,流傳至今。餃子在其漫長的發展過程中,名目繁多,古時有“牢丸”“扁食”“餃餌”“粉角”等等名稱。唐代稱餃子為“湯中牢丸”;元代稱為“時羅角兒”;明末稱為“粉角”;清朝稱為“扁食”。除這些文字記載,還可以看到一千三百多年前完整的唐代餃子。它是從新疆吐魯番縣阿斯塔那的唐墓里出土的。出土時,一只餃子和四只餛飩一起被放在一個木碗中。由此可見,至少在唐代,餃子已傳入我國的邊遠地區。

Dumplings originated from the ancient horns. As early as the Three Kingdoms period, this kind of food was mentioned in the book "Guangya" by Wei Zhangzheng. According to research: It developed from the "moon -shaped ravioli" from the Northern and Southern Dynasties to the Tang Dynasty and the "Drifid Permanent Pork" during the Southern Song Dynasty. It has a history of more than 1,400 years. Relevant historical records in the Qing Dynasty said; "In the New Year's Day, Sheng Xun leaned together, such as food flat food, named horn, and took the righteousness of his fellowship." He also said: "Every day on the first year of each year Make dumplings, saying that it is the nation, all of which are different. There are no differences. The wealthy family, secretly in the crickets of small gold and silver, goes smoothly, and the family eats it. This shows that people eat dumplings for the Spring Festival, which means auspicious to show the old and welcome the new. The "Clear Banknotes" edited by Xu Ke said: "There are stuffing in it, or the corner of the powder -and steamed food and fried food. Dumplings, as the New Year's food, are loved by people and have been practiced along the way. During its long development, dumplings have a lot of names. The Tang Dynasty called dumplings "Tangzhong Pills"; the Yuan Dynasty was called "Shi Luo Kaner"; in the late Ming Dynasty, it was called "powder horns"; the Qing Dynasty was called "flat food". In addition to these text records, you can also see the complete Tang Dynasty dumplings more than 1,300 years ago. It was unearthed from the Tang tomb of Astana, Turpan County, Xinjiang. When unearthed, a dumplings were placed in a wooden bowl with four ravioli. It can be seen that at least in the Tang Dynasty, dumplings have been introduced to the remote areas of our country.

  ◆元宵的由來

◆ The origin of the Lantern Festival

  元宵,南方人又叫“湯圓”、“水圓”、“湯團”等。宋人陳元靚寫的《歲時廣記》稱它為“元子”;《乾淳歲時記》稱它為“乳糖元子”;《大明一統賦》稱它為“糖元”;《武林舊事》稱它為“團子”。各地制作的種種元宵,雖然風味各異,但均帶有團圓的寓意和象征,為廣大群眾所喜愛。元宵最初起源于宋朝,那時民間開始流行一種元宵節吃的新奇食品,即用各種果餌做餡,外面用糯米粉搓成球,煮熟后吃起來香甜可口,饒有風趣。因為這種糯米球煮在鍋里又浮又沉,所以最早叫“浮元子”,后來有的地區把浮元子改稱元宵。1912年,袁世凱篡奪革命成果,他一心想當皇帝,又怕人民反對,一天到晚提心吊膽。因為“元”和“袁”、“宵”和“消”同音,“袁消”有“袁世凱被消滅之嫌”,于是,在1913年元宵節前,袁世凱下令把元宵改為湯圓。袁世凱垮臺后,大部分地區又恢復了元宵的名稱。

Lantern, southerners are also called "dumplings", "water circle", "soup ball" and so on. The Song of the Song Dynasty Chen Yuanliang was called "Yuanzi"; "Ganchun Shi Shi Ji" called it "lactose Yuanzi"; "Old Things" calls it "dumplings". Although the flavors of the Lantern Festival in various places are different, they have the meaning and symbol of reunion, which are loved by the masses. The Lantern Festival originally originated in the Song Dynasty. At that time, a novelty food was eaten in the Lantern Festival, which was stuffed with various fruit bait. It was rubbed into a ball with glutinous rice flour outside. After cooking, it was sweet and delicious. Because this glutinous rice ball is boiled in the pot and sinks, it was first called "Fu Yuanzi". Later, some areas renamed Fu Yuanzi as the Lantern Festival. In 1912, Yuan Shikai usurped the achievements of the revolution. He wanted to be an emperor, and he was afraid of the people's opposition. Because "Yuan" and "Yuan", "Xiao" and "eliminating" are the same, "Yuan Lian" has "the suspect of being eliminated by Yuan Shikai", so before the Lantern Festival in 1913, Yuan Shikai ordered the Lantern Festival to dumplings. After Yuan Shikai's collapse, most regions restored the name of the Lantern Festival.

  ◆香蕉的由來

◆ The origin of bananas

  香蕉原產于印度和馬來西亞等地。我國在漢武帝時就已栽培。漢代《三輔黃圖》中說武帝元鼎六年(公元前11年),建扶荔宮?!耙灾菜闷娌莓惸?,有芭蕉二本”。神話說佛教始祖釋迦牟尼吃下香蕉后獲得智慧,因此把它尊為“智慧之果”。西非到7世紀才有香蕉,是由阿拉伯商人傳去的。傳到西歐和美洲那就更晚了。

Banana is native to India and Malaysia.my country was cultivated in Emperor Hanwu.In the Han Dynasty's "Three Supplementary Yellow Maps", it was said that the Emperor Ding Yuan Ding (11 BC) was built."The strange grass is obtained by planting, there are two banana books."The myth said that Buddhist ancestors of Buddhist Ernakuni got wisdom after eating bananas, so they respect it as "the fruit of wisdom".West Africa did not have bananas until the 7th century, and was passed on by Arab businessmen.It is later to pass to Western Europe and the Americas.

  ◆冰淇林的由來

◆ The origin of ice cream forest

  早在古羅馬帝國時代,有位皇帝因盛暑難熬,請仆人四處奔波,為其尋覓冰雪解暑。有位聰明的廚師從高山上取回未化的冰雪,用蜂蜜和水果汁攪拌起來,給皇帝驅熱解渴。這大概便是世界上最早的冰淇淋了。到了13世紀的時候,馬可?波羅從中國把牛奶變冰的辦法帶回意大利,于是歐洲夏季的冷飲有了突破。真正使用奶油制作冰淇淋始于15世紀,距今不足500年。冰淇淋在意大利稱為“牛奶花”,在英國被稱為“凍奶油”,這說明冰淇淋的主要成分離不開牛奶。

As early as the period of the ancient Roman Empire, a emperor was difficult for the summer to ask the servants to run around to find the snow and snow to relieve the heat.A smart chef retrieved the unfinished ice and snow from the mountain, stirred with honey and fruit juice to remove the emperor's thirst.This is probably the earliest ice cream in the world.By the 13th century, Marco Polo brought the way to turn milk from China to Italy, so the cold drinks in Europe have made a breakthrough.The use of cream to make ice cream began in the 15th century, less than 500 years ago.Ice cream is called "milk flowers" in Italy, and it is called "frozen cream" in the UK, which shows that the main composition of ice cream is inseparable from milk.

  ◆面條的由來

◆ The origin of noodles

  我國的面條起源于漢代。那時面食統稱為餅,因面條要在“湯”中煮熟,所以又叫湯餅。早期的面條有片狀的、條狀的。片狀的是將面團托在手上,拉扯成面片下鍋而成。到了魏、晉、南北朝,面條的種類增多。著名的有《齊民要術》中收錄的“水引”、“馎饦”,“水引”是將筷子般粗的面條壓成“韭葉”形狀;“馎饦”則是極薄的“滑美殊?!钡拿嫫?。隋、唐、五代時期,面條的品種更多。有一種叫“冷淘”的過水涼面,風味獨特,詩圣杜甫十分欣賞,稱其“經齒冷于雪”。還有一種面條,制得有韌勁,有“濕面條可以系鞋帶”的說法,被人稱為“健康七妙”之一。宋、元時期,“掛面”出現了,如南宋臨安市上就有豬羊庵生面以及多種素面出售。及至明清,面條的花色更為繁多。如清代戲劇家李漁就在《閑情偶寄》中收錄了“五香面”、“八珍面”。這兩種面條分別將五種和八種動植物原料的細末摻進面中制成,堪稱面條中的上品。

my country's noodles originated in the Han Dynasty. At that time, the pasta was called cakes. Because the noodles were cooked in the "soup", it was also called soup cake. Early noodles were slim and strip. The piece is held on the hand and pulled it into a noodle piece. In Wei, Jin, and the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the types of noodles increased. The well -known "water lead" and "馎饦" included in "Qi Min Yao Shu", "water led" is the shape of chopstick -like noodles into "leek leaves" shape; "馎饦" is a very thin "slippery" Noodle slices of beauty. During the Sui, Tang, and Five Dynasties, there were more noodles. There is a kind of overwhelming noodles called "Lengtao", which has a unique flavor. The Poetry Saint Du Fu appreciates it very much, saying that it is "cold than snow". There is also a kind of noodle, which is tough. There is a saying that "wet noodles can be tied to shoelaces", which is known as one of the "healthy health". During the Song and Yuan dynasties, "hanging noodles" appeared. For example, there were pigs and sheep noodles and a variety of vegetarian noodles on Lin'an City in the Southern Song Dynasty. As of the Ming and Qing dynasties, the color of the noodles is more colorful. For example, Li Yu, a drama in the Qing Dynasty, included "Wu Xiang Noodles" and "Eight Zhen Noodles" in "Said". These two noodles are made into the noodles of the five and eight types of animal and plant raw materials, which can be called the top products in the noodles.

  ◆西瓜的由來

◆ The origin of watermelon

  我國是世界上最大的西瓜產地,但西瓜并非源于中國。西瓜的原生地在非洲,它原是葫蘆科的野生植物,后經人工培植成為食用西瓜。早在四千年前,埃及人就種植西瓜,后來逐漸北移,最初由地中海沿岸傳至北歐,而后南下進入中東、印度等地,四五世紀時,由西域傳入我國,所以稱之為“西瓜”。據明代科學家徐光啟《農政全書》記載:“西瓜,種出西域,故之名?!泵骼顣r珍在《本草綱目》中記載:“按胡嬌于回紇得瓜種,名曰西瓜。則西瓜自五代時始入中國;今南北皆有?!边@說明西瓜在我國的栽培已有悠久的歷史。

my country is the largest watermelon producing place in the world, but watermelon does not originate from China.The native land of watermelon is in Africa. It was originally a wild plant of the gourd family, and was artificially cultivated into edible watermelon.As early as four thousand years ago, the Egyptians planted watermelon, and later moved north. It was originally passed from the Mediterranean coast to Northern Europe, and then went south to the Middle East, India and other places."watermelon".According to the Ming Dynasty scientist Xu Guangqi's "The Book of Agricultural Political Politics": "Watermelon, planting the Western Regions, hence the name." Ming Li Shizhen recorded in the "Compendium of Materia Medica": "According to Hu Jiao Yuyu to get melon, it is called watermelon. It started to enter China in the fifth generation; all north and south are available. "This shows that the cultivation of watermelon in my country has a long history.

  ◆茶的由來

◆ The origin of tea

  我國勤勞智慧的人民,是世界上最先認識并植制茶葉的民族。早在四千多年以前的原始社會,傳說中嘗百草的“神農”就已經發現了苦茶這種植物。史籍還有“炎帝崩于茶鄉”的記述,所以把神農死的地方稱做“茶鄉”。那時候,人們稱茶叫苦茶。一千多年以后,人們又稱苦茶為“木賈”(音jiǎ),當時《爾雅?釋木》篇里很明確地把“木賈”解釋為“苦茶”,這里的“茶”字就是現在的“茶”字。漢和帝永元十二年(公元100年),許慎在他的《說文解字》里,把“茶”解釋為“苦茶”,而且說:茶,“即今之茶字”,可見,早在東漢時期,茶這種植物已經在文字上定型化了。人們一向以為唐朝才開始以茶沖飲,這是一個很大的誤解。因為早于唐朝二百多年的東晉(公元317至420年),有位叫做郭璞的人,他在《爾雅注》里有這么一段話:“……今呼早采者為茶,晚取名為茗,……”可見當時人們對采茶的遲早與茶質的關系已經有了相當精辟的總結,如果不是對茶有長期的種植、飲用的實踐,產生這樣的認識是不可能的。唐上元初年(公元674年),竟陵(今湖北天門縣)人陸羽(被后代譽為“茶圣”)開始寫作我國第一部研究茶的專著《茶經》?!短茣氛f這位陸羽嗜茶如命,他用了畢生的精力專心致志地探索茶的源本、植制、采造方法、工具,成為世界上第一個茶葉科學家。

my country's hard -working and wise people are the peoples in the world who know and plant tea in the world. As early as 4,000 years ago, the primitive society, legendary "Shennong" who tasted Bai Cao had discovered the plants of bitter tea. There is also a description of "Emperor Yan in the Tea Township", so he calls the place where the gods die as "tea village". At that time, people called tea called bitter tea. More than a thousand years later, people also called bitter tea "Mujia" (sound jiǎ). "The word is the word" tea ". In the twelve years of Han and Emperor Yongyuan (100 AD), Xu Shen interpreted "tea" as "bitter tea" in his "Speaking Words", and said: "Tea," Today's Tea Word ", It can be seen that as early as the Eastern Han Dynasty, the plants of tea have been finalized in text. People always thought that the Tang Dynasty began to drink with tea, which was a big misunderstanding. Because the Eastern Jin Dynasty (AD 317 to 420), who was more than 200 years ago in the Tang Dynasty, was called Guo Yan. He had such a paragraph in "Eria Note": "... , Late named ”..." It can be seen that the relationship between the sooner or later and tea quality of tea picking and tea at that time had a considerable summary. possible. In the early years of the Tang Dynasty (AD 674), Lu Yu, a person in Turning (now Tianmen County, Hubei), began to write the monograph "Tea Scripture" in China. "Tang Shu" said that Lu Yu was addicted to tea. He used his life -long energy to explore the source of tea, planting, collection methods, and tools to become the first tea scientist in the world.

  ◆酒的由來

◆ The origin of wine

  我國是古老的釀酒國家。我們的祖先最早是在偶然的機會中發現含糖的野果會自然發酵成酒的。此后,人們便有意識地利用野果造酒,但由于用野果釀酒要受季節限制,谷物釀酒術就應運而生?!稇饑?魏二》曾記載有舜帝女令儀狄作酒進獻給離的故事?!对?大雅?既醉》:“既醉以酒,既飽以德”,說明到了春秋戰國時期,在各種祭祀、會盟、慶祝勝利、接待使者等場合中,酒已成為必不可少的佳釀。1974年,在河北平山發掘的戰國時期的中山王墓里,出土了距今二千二百多年的古酒。當酒壺被打開時,仍飄逸出醉人的酒香。我國釀造業有四千多年的歷史,釀酒的技術水平很高,酒的品種也很豐富。從產品、原料和工藝特點講,我國的酒分為五大類,即黃酒、白酒、葡萄酒、啤酒和果酒。

my country is an ancient brewing country.Our ancestors first discovered that sugar -containing wild fruits were naturally fermented into wine.Since then, people have consciously used wild fruits to make wine, but because the use of wild fruit wine is limited by seasonal restrictions, grain brewing has emerged."Warring States Policy? Wei Er" once recorded the story of Emperor Shun's Ling Yi Di made a wine dedicated to Li."Poetry? Daya? Drunk": "Both drunk and alcohol, both full of virtue" shows that in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, in the cases of various sacrifices, alliances, celebrations, receptions, etc.Wine.In 1974, in the Warring States Period in Pingshan, Hebei, the Tomb of the Kingdom of Zhongshan was unearthed from more than 2,200 years ago.When the jug was opened, the intoxicating wine was still elegant.my country's brewing industry has a history of more than 4,000 years, the technical level of brewing is very high, and the variety of wine is also very rich.From the characteristics of products, raw materials and craftsmanship, my country's wines are divided into five categories, namely rice wine, liquor, wine, beer and fruit wine.

  ◆咖啡的由來

◆ The origin of coffee

  咖啡,是風靡全球的三大飲料之一。關于咖啡由來的傳說有好幾種,其中較為人熟知的是牧羊人的故事:約在公元600年左右,有一個牧羊人,發現他的羊群每到夜晚就會異常興奮地嘶叫,他在驚怕之下向教堂的神父求助,神父在細心地觀察羊群幾天后,發現羊群是吃了一種不知名的果實,神父自己吃了一點發現這種果實可以令人興奮,自此神父將此果實稱為“去除睡意、清凈心靈的神圣物品”。一位阿拉伯商人從中受到啟發,調制了一種“咖啡豆肉湯”,竟然銷路大振,轟動市井。直至有人將咖啡豆炒熟、粉碎,用水煮沸,并加食糖,才成為醇香撲鼻的飲料。

Coffee is one of the three major drinks around the world.There are several legends about the origin of coffee. Among them, the story of the shepherd is more well -known: about 600 AD, there is a shepherd who finds that his flocks scream very excitedly every night. HeUnder the fear of the priest of the church, the priest was carefully observed for a few days after the sheep, and found that the flock was eating an unknown fruit.This priest calls this fruit as "removing drowsiness and sacred items of pure mind."A Arab businessman was inspired by it and prepared a "coffee bean soup", which even sold out the market and sensation.It was not until someone fried coffee beans, boiled with water, and sugar, and became a delicious drink.

  ◆醋的由來

◆ The origin of vinegar

  醋是人們生活中不可缺少的調味品。傳說在古代的中興國,即今山西省運城縣有個叫杜康的人發明了酒。他兒子黑塔也跟杜康學會了釀酒技術。后來,黑塔率族移居現江蘇省鎮江地方。在那里,他們釀酒后覺得酒糟扔掉可惜,就存放起來,在缸里浸泡。到了21日的酉時,一開缸,一股從來沒有聞過的香氣撲鼻而來。在濃郁的香味誘惑下,黑塔嘗了一口,酸甜兼備,味道很美,便貯藏著作為“調味漿”。這種調味漿叫什么名字呢?黑塔把21日加“酉”字來命名這種酸水叫“醋”。據說,直到今天,鎮江恒順醬醋廠釀制一批醋的期限還是21天。

Vinegar is an indispensable condiment in people's lives.It is said that in the ancient ZTE country, a person named Du Kang in Yuncheng County, Shanxi Province, invented wine.His son Hea Tower also learned to make winemaking techniques with Du Kang.Later, the Hea Tower led the family to move to Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province.There, after brewing, they felt that the distiller was thrown away, so they were stored and soaked in the tank.By the time of the 21st, when the tank was opened, a aroma that had never been smelled.Under the strong seductive temptation, the black tower tasted, both sweet and sour, and the taste was beautiful, so it was stored as a "seasoning pulp".What is the name of this seasoning pulp? The black tower is named "vinegar" by the word "酉" on the 21st.It is said that to this day, the deadline for making a batch of vinegar in Zhenjiang Hengshun Sauce Vinegar Factory is still 21 days.

  ◆味精的由來

◆ The origin of MSG

  味精是由日本人發明的。它的發明還有一個小故事。東京大學的教授池田菊苗,是一位四十多歲的化學家,他在大學里既教書,又從事科學研究。1908年盛夏的一天晚上,池田做完實驗回到家里,妻子為他端來了飯菜和湯?!敖裉斓耐聿驼尕S富啊!”池田高興地說。妻子聽了滿意地點點頭。池田津津有味地吃著,忽然,他停止了進餐,怔了一會兒,將目光停在了黃瓜湯上?!敖裉爝@碗湯怎么這樣鮮!”“湯里除了海帶和黃瓜,沒有別的東西了嗎?”池田問妻子?!笆茄?”妻子答道,“這海帶是今天上午在日比谷公園買的,挺新鮮的?!薄斑@海帶里面一定有什么奧妙!”池田自言自語地說道。妻子滿臉疑惑。從這天起,池田教授在東京大學的化學實驗室里,仔細地研究起海帶的化學成分來。半年以后,他從海帶里提取出一種叫谷氨酸鈉的物質。奧秘終于揭開,正是谷氨酸鈉大大提高了菜肴的鮮味。于是,池田把它定名為“味之素”,并獲得專利。20世紀初,中國到處可見味之素的廣告。有一個叫吳蘊初的工程師對這種能產生鮮味的粉末很感興趣,便買了一瓶回去研究。他化驗出粉末的主要成份是谷氨酸鈉,于是就想造出中國的味之素來。經過一年的時間,終于提煉出10克白粉似的結晶來,一嘗味道,與日本的味之素無異。吳蘊初想:“最香的香水叫香精,最甜的味道稱糖精,那么,最鮮的東西,不妨取名為'味精’”。

MSG was invented by the Japanese. Its invention has another small story. The professor of the University of Tokyo, Ikeda Kosa Miao, is a chemist in his forties. He teaches not only a book in the university and engaged in scientific research. One night in the summer of 1908, Ikeda returned home after finishing the experiment, and his wife brought me food and soup for him. "Today's dinner is so rich!" Ikeda said happily. The wife nodded with a satisfactory place. Ikeda ate with interest. Suddenly, he stopped eating, stunned for a while, and stopped his eyes on the cucumber soup. "Why is this bowl of soup so fresh today!" "Soup is nothing else except kelp and cucumber?" Ikeda asked his wife. "Yeah!" The wife replied, "This kelp was bought in Ritan Park this morning, which is quite fresh." "There must be any mystery in this kelp!" Ikeda said to himself. The wife was puzzled. From this day, Professor Ikeda carefully studied the chemical composition of kelp in the chemical laboratory of the University of Tokyo. Half a year later, he extracted a substance called sodium glutamate from the kelp. The mystery is finally unveiled, which is exactly that sodium glutamate greatly increases the umami taste of the dishes. As a result, Ikeda named it "Misin" and obtained a patent. At the beginning of the 20th century, China could see the ads of the taste of taste everywhere. A engineer named Wu Yunchu was very interested in this kind of prejudice powder, and bought a bottle back to study. He tested the main component of the powder is sodium glutamate, so he wanted to create the taste of China. After a year, 10 grams of white powder -like crystals were finally refined. When it tasted, it was no different from the taste of Japan. Wu Yunchu thought: "The most fragrant perfume is called fragrance, and the sweetest taste is called sugar, so the most fresh thing may wish to be named ' MSG."

  ◆可口可樂的由來

◆ The origin of Coca -Cola

  可口可樂是由美國的一位名叫約翰?彭伯頓的藥劑師發明的?!拔移谕麆撛斐鲆环N能提神、解乏、治頭痛的藥用混合飲料?!迸聿D常對來訪的朋友說。經過不懈的努力,這位藥劑師終于在1886年調制出一種能治療頭痛、腦熱的藥劑配方,這劑配方的主要成份是來自南美洲的兩種果汁——“可卡”和“可樂”,因此,彭伯頓給它起了個“可卡可樂”的名字。彭伯頓調制的“可卡可拉”,起初是不含氣體的,飲用時兌上涼水。只是由于一次偶然的意外,才變成了充氣飲料。1886年5月8日下午,一個喝醉了酒的酒鬼跌跌撞撞地來到了彭伯頓的藥店?!皝硪槐委燁^痛腦熱的藥水?!睜I業員拿起了一杯可卡可拉?!斑@種藥水叫什么來著?”酒鬼問?!翱煽衫?。營業員本來應該到水龍頭那兒去兌水,但水龍頭離他有二米多遠,他懶得走動,便就近操起充氣的礦泉水往可卡可拉里摻。酒鬼一杯接一杯地喝,嘴里不停地說:“好喝!好喝!”。酒鬼到處宣傳這種不含酒精的飲料所產生的奇效。他去世前的四年把發明權出售。在其后四十年內,世界上無人不知可口可樂。

The Coca -Cola was invented by a pharmacist named John Pengberon in the United States. "I hope to create a medicinal hybrid drink that can refresh, solve, and treat headaches." Pengberon often told visiting friends. After unremitting efforts, the pharmacist finally made a formula that can treat headache and brain heat in 1886. The main ingredient of this formula is two kinds of juice from South America- "Card" and "Cola Cola" and "Cola Cola" "Therefore, Pindopon gave it the name" Coca ". The "Coco Kara" prepared by Perton was at first contained in gas, and it was mixed with cold water when drinking. It was only because of a accident that it became an inflatable drink. On the afternoon of May 8, 1886, a drunk alcoholic drunk came to Perton's pharmacy. "Come a cup of potion that treats headache and brain heat." The salesperson picked up a cup of Kakala. "What is the name of this potion?" The alcoholic asked. "Kakora". The salesperson should have greeted the water at the water faucet, but the faucet was more than two meters away from him. He was too lazy to walk around, and he fucking inflatable mineral water nearby to Koccara. Drinking one glass after a drink, and said in his mouth, "It's delicious! It's delicious!". The alcoholic effects are made everywhere. Four years before his death sold the invention right. In the next forty years, no one in the world did not know Coca -Cola.

  ◆西紅柿的由來

◆ The origin of tomatoes

  西紅柿也叫番茄,顧名思義,它來自“番邦”。由于它色彩極為鮮艷一般都認為它是一種毒果。西紅柿是半生半長在秘魯的叢林中當時叫“狼桃”。到了16世紀,英國有一位名叫俄羅達拉里的公爵游歷來到了秘魯,非常喜歡當地這種桃,于是,他把它帶回英國皇宮,作為珍貴的禮品奉獻給他的情人——當時的英國女王伊麗莎白。從那以后,西紅柿在異國他鄉的土地上被大量地種植,但只限于觀賞。到了18世紀,法國有一位畫家禁不住誘惑,決心冒死嘗一嘗這“狼桃”果的滋味。他勇敢地吃下一口之后,感到酸甜可口,但想到人們的警告,仍不免心驚肉跳。于是,他穿好衣服躺在床上等死。時間在焦慮、恐懼中慢慢過去,他沒有感到任何不舒服,反而食欲大增,12小時之后,這位冒險的畫家仍好好地活著,從此他忍不住經常吃起來。這位畫家不畏犧牲、勇敢地嘗試西紅柿的趣話在各地傳播開來。到18世紀后期,意大利人開始嘗試用西紅柿做菜,并傳至世界各地。

Tomato is also called tomato, as the name suggests, it comes from "Fanbang". Because its color is extremely bright, it is generally considered to be a poisonous fruit. Tomatoes were half -life in the jungle of Peru and then called "Wolf Peach." In the 16th century, a Duke named Russia named Russia came to Peru and liked the local peach very much. Therefore, he brought it back to the British Palace and dedicated to his lover as a precious gift -then Queen Elizabeth. Since then, tomatoes have been grown in large quantities on the land of foreign countries, but they are limited to viewing. In the 18th century, a painter in France couldn't help temptation and determined to try to taste the taste of this "wolf peach". After eating bravely, he felt sweet and sour, but thought of people's warnings, he was still shocked. So he lay dresses and lay on the bed and waited to die. Time passed slowly in anxiety and fear. He didn't feel any discomfort, but his appetite increased greatly. After 12 hours, the adventure artist was still alive, and he couldn't help but eat often. The painter was not afraid of sacrifice and bravely trying the interesting words of tomatoes to spread in various places. By the late 18th century, the Italians began to try to cook with tomatoes and spread them to all parts of the world.

  ◆辣椒的由來

◆ The origin of peppers

  辣椒原產于南美洲的墨西哥、秘魯等地,首先種植和食用它的是印第安人。16世紀傳入歐洲,17世紀由歐洲引入我國。辣椒在我國雖然只有四百多年的歷史,但是我國已經擁有了世界上最豐富的品種,如櫻桃椒、圓錐椒、牛角椒、朝天椒和燈籠椒。

Pepper is native to Mexico, Peru and other places in South America. The first planting and consumption of it is the Indians.It was introduced to Europe in the 16th century and was introduced to my country from Europe in the 17th century.Although peppers have only a history of more than 400 years in my country, my country already has the richest varieties in the world, such as cherry pepper, cone pepper, beef horn peppers, Chaotian pepper and lantern pepper.

  ◆口香糖的由來

◆ The origin of chewing gum

  口香糖的誕生,應該追溯到墨西哥人安東尼奧?羅佩斯?德?桑塔?安納將軍。安東尼奧?羅佩斯?德?桑塔?安納在1836年的賈森托戰役中被俘,被美國山姆?豪斯頓將軍釋放回國后,不久他帶著一種曬干了的人心果樹膠到了美國紐約。人心果樹生長在墨西哥叢林中,當地的印第安人喜歡把樹膠放在嘴里咀嚼。在和桑塔?安納談話時,美國新澤西市的冒險家托馬斯?亞當斯發現了這位墨西哥人不時地從口袋里掏出一小塊樹膠放進嘴里嚼,并深深吸引著自己的兒子。一天下午,亞當斯在一家藥店里看到店主賣給小女孩一塊人們用來嚼咬的石蠟,此事使亞當斯想起桑塔?安納嚼咬的樹膠和他兒子的興趣,他問藥店老板是否愿意出售一種更好的嚼咬物,老板表示同意。亞當斯回家后,遂即和兒子霍拉肖在家中對桑塔?安納帶來的樹膠進行了加工。一兩天后,亞當斯把這些圓球送到藥店老板那出售,結果銷路很好。接著亞當斯又買進一批樹膠,租下廠房,從此開始了大批生產,并遠銷各地,得到人們的青睞。

The birth of chewing gum should be traced back to General Antonio Ropez De Santa of the Mexican Antonio Ropez. Antonio Ropez De Santa Annea was captured in the Battle of Jarsto in 1836 and was released by General Sam Hamston in the United States. Soon after he was released, he brought a kind of dried man's heart fruit gum. New York, USA. Human fruit trees grow in the jungle in Mexico, and the local Indians like to chew tree gums in their mouths. While talking to Santa Annea, Tomas Adams, the adventurer of New Jersey, USA, found that the Mexican people took a small piece of tree gum from time to time and put them in their mouths and chewed it deeply. Essence One afternoon, Adams saw in a pharmacy that the owner sold to the little girl for the little girl to chew the bite. The incident reminded Adams of Santa and chewing the bite and his son's interest. To sell a better chewing bite, the boss agreed. After Adams returned home, he processed the gum brought by his son Horah at home at home. One or two days later, Adams sent these balls to the owner of the pharmacy for sale, but the sales were very good. Then Adams bought another batch of tree glue, rented the factory, and started a large number of production, and was exported to various places to get the favor of people.

  五、日用品類

Five, daily necessities

  ◆鎖與鑰匙的由來

◆ The origin of the lock and key

  原始人過著穴居的生活時,為了安全,有時要推動巨石來擋住洞口,它所防備的也并不是小偷而是野獸。私有制出現后,小偷出現了,于是鎖也就誕生了。遠在三千多年前,中國就有了鎖。不過,最早的鎖沒有機關,只是做成老虎等兇惡動物的形狀,想借以把小偷嚇走,只能說是一種象征性的鎖。據說魯班是第一個給鎖裝上機關的人。從出土文物及文字記載所反映的情況看,古代的鎖是靠兩片板狀彈簧的彈力工作。直到現在,這種彈簧仍在應用。在國外,古希臘人雖曾發現了一種極為可靠的鎖,但因鑰匙較大,要扛在肩上,很難在一般家庭中普及。古代印度人則制成了另一種鳥形的“迷鎖”,鑰匙孔藏在可以抖動的翅膀里?,F代鎖的興起首先是由18世紀英國人發明了“焊釣鎖”。我們目前廣泛使用的彈子鎖,是美國人小尼魯斯?耶魯于1860年發明的。而鑰匙的發明比鎖要晚些古代的埃及人是世界上最早使用鑰匙的。他們的鎖是把一條木制門栓插人一個槽中,槽溝#有一個木制栓。門栓插入槽溝后,木制栓便會插入門栓的孔。這樣一來,門栓便很牢固,必須用鑰匙才能打開。由于埃及人的鎖只能用在有門栓的那一面,不利于靈活地開與關,于是,希臘人在此基礎上,又研究出一種可以從另一面打開的鎖。希臘人所制的鑰匙,是一根彎曲的木棒,形狀和大小很像農夫用的小鐮刀。但是也有一些鑰匙長達3尺,必須扛在肩上才能搬動,相當沉重。羅馬人可以說是古代最精巧的鎖匠,他們對制造鑰匙的標準相當有研究,已經懂得把鑰匙末端的釘子切割成各種不同的形狀。

When the primitive people live in the life of the acupoint, for safety, they sometimes promote the boulder to block the entrance, and it is not a thief but a beast. After the private ownership appeared, the thief appeared, so the lock was born. More than 3,000 years ago, China was locked. However, the earliest locks have no agencies, but they are just the shape of fierce animals such as tigers. They want to scare the thief away. It can only be said to be a symbolic lock. It is said that Luban was the first person to lock the authority. Judging from the situation reflected in the unearthed cultural relics and text records, the ancient locks work by the elasticity of two plate -shaped spring. Until now, this spring is still applied. Although the ancient Greeks had found a very reliable lock, because the keys were large, it was difficult to popularize it on the shoulders. The ancient Indians made another bird -shaped "lock", and the keyhole was hidden in the wings that could shake. The rise of modern locks was first invented by the British in the 18th century. The marble locks we are currently widely used were invented by the Americans Nils, Jerus Yale in 1860. The invention of the key is the earliest in the world to use the key than the locks. Their lock is to insert a wooden door bolt into a slot, and the groove#has a wooden bolt. After the door embolism is inserted into the groove, the wooden embolism will be inserted into the hole of the door bolt. In this way, the door bolt is firm and must be opened with the key. Since the Egyptians' locks can only be used on the side of the door bolt, which is not conducive to flexibly opening and customs clearance, the Greeks have developed a lock that can be opened from the other on the basis of this. The key made by the Greeks is a curved wooden stick with a small sickle in shape and size like farmers. However, there are also some keys to be 3 feet long, and they must be carried on their shoulders to move, which is quite heavy. The Romans can be said to be the most exquisite locksmith in ancient times. They have studied the standards for making keys. They already know how to cut the nails at the end of the key into various shapes.

  ◆傘的由來

◆ The origin of umbrella

  傘是我國首創,據傳是魯班的妻子云氏發明的?!犊鬃蛹艺Z》中說:“孔子之郯,遭程子于途,傾蓋而語?!边@里的“蓋”就是指“傘”?!妒酚?五帝紀》記有與傘同類的雨具,可見傘在我國已有四千多年歷史了。最早稱傘為“華蓋”,唐朝李延壽寫的《南史》和《北史》才正式為傘定名。古時的傘,是達官顯貴的裝飾品和士大夫權勢的象征物,帝王將相出巡時,長柄扇、“萬民傘”左簇右擁,乘坐的車輿上張著傘,表示“蔭庇百姓”。官位、職務不同,“羅傘”的大小、顏色都嚴格區分,這一慣例一直傳到明朝。紙傘是漢朝以后出現的,唐朝時傳入日本,16世紀才傳入歐洲。意大利藝術大師達?芬奇受傘的啟發,設計了第一個降落傘。18世紀發明的傘齒輪,也是仿照傘的截面形狀設計的。1957年,北京師范大學老焱若教授從人體肘關節能曲能伸受到啟發,想到若能根據這個原理,制造一種像人的肘關節一樣伸曲靈活的折疊傘,人們攜帶起來就方便多了,于是,他對現行傘進行改進,設計出了圖紙,并親手制定出加工工藝及模具設計,最后與北京一家機械加工廠——中孚工廠達成協儀,由該廠承制并銷售。折疊傘因其攜帶方便而深受廣大群眾歡迎,沒過多久,便在全國各地流行開來。

Umbrella was the first in my country, and it was rumored to be invented by Yun's wife of Luban. "Confucius Family" said: "The Confucius's 郯, by Cheng Zi, is covered." The "lid" here refers to "umbrella". "Historical Records? Five Emperor Ji" has the same rainy gear as umbrellas. It can be seen that umbrellas have a history of more than 4,000 years in my country. The earliest umbrella was "Hua Gai", and the "South History" and "North History" written by Li Yanshou of the Tang Dynasty were officially tied for the umbrella. The ancient umbrella was a symbol of the power of the decorations and scholars with the power of the officials. When the emperor would go out of the tour, the long -handle fan and the "Wanmin Umbrella" were embracing the left cluster. "". The official position and position are different. The size and color of the "Luo Umbrella" are strictly distinguished. This practice has been passed on to the Ming Dynasty. The paper umbrella appeared after the Han Dynasty. It was introduced to Japan during the Tang Dynasty and was introduced to Europe in the 16th century. The Italian art master Da Vinci was inspired by the umbrella and designed the first parachute. The umbrella gear invented in the 18th century is also designed by the cross -section shape of the umbrella. In 1957, Professor Professor of Beijing Normal University was inspired by the elbow of the elbow of the human body. It was thought that if he could create a human elbow joint like a human elbow, it would be more convenient to carry it. Therefore, he improved the current umbrella, designed drawings, and created a processing process and mold design. Finally, he reached an associates with a mechanical processing plant in Beijing, the Zhongfu factory, which was concluded and sold by the factory. Folding umbrellas are popular with the general public because of their convenient carriers. It didn't take long for it to be popular all over the country.

  ◆剃須刀的由來

◆ The origin of shaving knife

  吉列剃須刀是現在著名的品牌實際上剃須刀就是由美國的吉列發明的。1895年的一天,吉列走進了一家理發店。談起現在大家只要一提起刮胡須就害怕,他自己前一次刮胡須,也被刮出了血?!耙怯幸环N安全剃須刀就好了?!崩戆l師聳聳肩說。吉列以從商者特有的敏感意識到,全世界有2/5的人用剃須刀,如果發明一種新式的安全剃須刀,肯定有銷路。他決心自己干?;氐郊液?,吉利便一頭鉆進了試驗室。吉列磨好刀片后,先在自己臉上試,而后在兄弟、朋友的臉上試,大家的臉上都留下了布滿刀口的光禿禿的下巴。然而,一年多過去了,吉利仍沒有制作出一把理想的剃須刀。正當吉列猶豫不決時,遇到了著名發明家尼卡松。尼卡松給了吉列熱情的鼓勵:“你的設想很好,將來成功之后可以申請專利,開一家專門經營安全剃須刀的公司。搞發明嘛,哪有一蹴而就的?”在尼卡松幫助下,吉列又經過一段時間的研制,終于制成了一種“T”字形的剃須刀。這種剃須刀的刀刃很薄,很鋒利,但在刮胡須時,它能隨著接觸面變換角度,因而不會傷人。1901年,吉列為自己發明的安全剃須刀申請了專利,同時開了世界上第一家經營這種剃須刀的公司。

The Gillette Sharoper is now invented by Gillette in the United States. One day in 1895, Gillette entered a barber shop. Talking about it now that everyone is scared as soon as the beard is raised. He scraped the beard a while before, and he was also shaved out of blood. "If there is a safe shaver, it would be nice." The barber shrugged. Gillette's unique sensitive awareness of the merchants believes that 2/5 people around the world use shaver. If a new type of security shaving knife is invented, there must be sales. He is determined to do himself. After returning home, Geely went into the laboratory. After Gillette grinds the blade, try it on his face first, and then try on the face of his brothers and friends. Everyone's face leaves a bare chin covered with a knife. However, more than a year has passed, and Geely has not produced an ideal razor. When Gillette hesitated, he encountered the famous inventor Nicatson. Nikatong gave Gillette's enthusiastic encouragement: "Your conception is very good. After successful in the future, you can apply for a patent and open a company that specializes in operating a safety shaver. Do you have to do it overnight?" With help, after a period of development, Gillette finally made a "T" shaved knife. The blade of this shaving knife is thin and sharp, but when it is shaved, it can change the angle with the contact surface, so it will not hurt people. In 1901, Gillette applied for a patent for the security shaving knife that he invented, and at the same time opened the world's first company to operate this kind of razor.

  ◆硯的由來

◆ The origin of

  中國最早的硯臺是什么時候產生的?它和我們現在使用的硯臺有何區別呢?考古學家曾在陜西省臨潼縣姜寨一處原始社會的遺址中,發現了一套原始人用以陶器彩繪的工具,其中有一方石硯,硯有蓋,硯面微凹,凹處并有一根石質磨杵,硯旁留存數塊黑色顏料。很顯然,這是先民們借助磨杵研磨顏料的早期硯的形制。由于這處遺址歸屬于母系氏族時期的仰韶文化,故這方硯臺的實際壽齡已超過了五千個春秋。硯這種附帶磨杵或研石的形制從什么時候才開始發生改變,即取消磨杵或研石,而接近于現在的硯呢?目前所知,要直到兩漢時期。漢代由于發明了人工制墨,墨可以直接在硯上研磨,故不須再借助磨杵或研石來研天然或半天然墨了。如此看來,磨杵或研石經過史前及夏商周共三千多年的漫長跋涉,才逐漸消隱,盡管今天已不為所用,但其為傳播文化立下的功績仍不可沒。

When did the earliest Chinese Terrace be produced in China? What is the difference between it and the Terrace we use now? Archaeologists have found a set of primitive people for pottery in the site of a primitive society in Jiangzhai, Lintong County, Shaanxi Province. The painted tools, one of which is a stone, has a lid, a slightly concave surface, a stone grinding pestle at the concave, and several black pigments are left next to the pupa. Obviously, this is the early shape of the ancestors used the grinding paint to grind the pigment. Because this site belongs to the Yangshao culture of the matriarchal clan period, the actual life age of this Fangyatai has exceeded 5,000 spring and autumn. When the shape of a grinding pestle or research stone has changed from when it has changed, that is, the cancellation of the grinding pestle or the research stone, and what is close to the current 硯? At present, it is known until the Han Dynasty. Because the Han Dynasty invented artificial ink, ink can be grinded directly on the 硯, so there is no need to use the grinding pestle or research to study the natural or half -natural ink. From this point of view, the grinding pestle or studying stone has gradually disappeared after a long trek for more than 3,000 years of prehistoric and Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties. Although it is no longer used today, its achievements have been made for the communication culture.

  ◆毛筆的由來

◆ The origin of the brush

  最早的毛筆,大約可追溯到二千多年之前。西周以前雖然迄今尚未見有毛筆的實物,但從史前的彩陶花紋、商代的甲骨文等上可覓到些許用筆的跡象。東周的竹木簡、縑帛上已廣泛使用毛筆來書寫。湖北省隨州市擂鼓墩曾侯乙墓發現了春秋時期的毛筆,是目前發現最早的筆。其后,湖南省長沙市左家公山出土的戰國筆,湖北省云夢縣睡虎地、甘肅省天水市放馬灘出土的秦筆,及長沙馬王堆、湖北省江陵縣鳳凰山、甘肅省武威市、敦煌市懸泉置和馬圈灣、內蒙古自治區古居延地區的漢筆、武威的西晉筆等都是上古時代遺存的不可多得的寶貴資料。

The earliest brush can be traced back to more than 2,000 years ago.Although there is no real thing in the Western Zhou Dynasty, although there have been no more brushes to date, it can find a little signs of pens from the prehistoric pottery patterns and the Oracle of the Shang Dynasty.The bamboo and wooden slices of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty have been widely used on the writing brush on the pupae.Zeng Houyi Tomb of Luodun, Suizhou City, Hubei Province found the brushes during the Spring and Autumn Period, which is the earliest pen.Later, the Warring States Pen unearthed from Zuojia Gongshan, Changsha City, Hunan Province, Sleeping Tiger Land in Yunmeng County, Hubei Province, Qin Bi unearthed from Malan in Tianshui City, Gansu Province, and Changsha Mawangdui, Fenghuang Mountain, Jiangling County, Hubei Province, and Fenghuang Mountain in Jiangling County, Hubei Province.Wuwei City, Gansu Province, Xuanquanzhuang and Malaysia Bay in Dunhuang City, Hanbi in the ancient houses of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and Western Jin Dynasty in Wuwei are rare and valuable information of ancient relics in ancient times.

  ◆枕頭的由來

◆ The origin of the pillow

  原始時代,人們用石頭或草捆等將頭部墊高去睡覺,大概是“因丘陵掘穴而處”時比較原始的枕頭。到戰國時,枕頭就已經相當講究。1957年,在河南信陽長臺關一個戰國楚墓里,出土了一張保存完好的漆木床,床上就有竹枕。我國前人對枕頭頗有研究。北宋著名史學家司馬光,用一個小圓木作枕頭,睡覺時,只要稍動一下,頭從枕上滑落,便立即驚醒,醒之后發奮繼續讀書,他把這個枕頭取名為“警枕”。為了強身健體,在睡眠時達到治病的目的,古人還在枕內放藥以治病,叫做“藥枕”。李時珍《本草綱目》說:“苦蕎皮、黑豆皮、綠豆皮、決明子……作枕頭,至老明目?!泵耖g有多種多樣的枕頭,大都以“清火”、“去熱”為目的?,F代,枕頭越來越廣泛地用于醫療保健,如“磁療枕”對治療神經衰弱、失眠、頭痛及耳鳴有一定的療效。美國和香港流行一種“頸椎枕”,睡這種枕頭能使頸、肩和顱底的肌肉完全放松,消除一天的疲勞。目前,日本還研制出一種“健身枕”,像振蕩器那樣不斷釋放能量,可促進人體血液循環、新陳代謝,又可以催眠,更好地發揮它作為睡眠工具的作用。

In the primitive era, people used stones or grass to raise their heads to sleep, probably the primitive pillow when it was "excavated by the hills". When the Warring States Period, the pillow was quite particular. In 1957, a well -preserved lacquer wooden bed was unearthed in a tomb of Chu Chu, Changtai, Xinyang, Henan, with bamboo pillows on the bed. Our former people have studied pillows. Sima Guang, a well -known historian in the Northern Song Dynasty, used a small round wood as a pillow. When he was sleeping, as long as he moved a little, his head slipped from the pillow, and immediately woke up. After waking up, he continued to study. He named the pillow "alert pillow". In order to strengthen the body and achieve the purpose of cure during sleep, the ancients still put medicine in the pillow to cure the disease, called "medicine pillow". Li Shizhen's "Compendium of Materia Medica" said: "Buckwheatskin, black bean skin, mung bean skin, cassia ... as pillows, to the old eyes." There are many pillows in the people, most of them are "clearing fire" and "removing heat" as the Purpose. In modern times, pillows are becoming more and more widely used in medical care. For example, "magnetic therapy pillow" has certain effects on the treatment of neurasthenia, insomnia, headache and tinnitus. A "cervical spine pillow" is popular in the United States and Hong Kong. Sleeping this pillow can completely relax the muscles of the neck, shoulders and skull bottoms to eliminate fatigue for a day. At present, Japan has also developed a "fitness pillow", which continuously releases energy like an oscillator, which can promote human blood circulation, metabolism, and hypnotize, and better play its role as a sleeping tool.

  ◆肥皂的由來

◆ The origin of soap

  據說在五千多年前,古代埃及一個給國王做飯的廚師,不慎把一盆油打翻在炭灰里,當他趕忙扔掉后回來洗手時,發現手洗得特別干凈,他覺得很驚奇抓來一些叫其他廚師試用,效果也一樣。國王知道后便叫人仿制,這就是肥皂的雛形。到了公元70年,羅馬帝國學者普林尼,第一次用羊油和草木灰制取塊狀肥皂獲得成功。后來傳到英國,女王伊麗莎白一世下令建廠,用煮化的羊脂、燒堿等原料生產肥皂。直到法國化學家盧布蘭首先用電解食鹽的方法制取燒堿后,才使肥皂成本大大降低,從此,肥皂才逐漸走進人們的生活。

It is said that more than 5,000 years ago, a chef who cooks for the king in ancient times accidentally overturned a pot of oil in the charcoal ash. When he hurriedly threw it back to wash his hands, he found that his hand was washed very clean.I was surprised to grab some other chefs for trial, as well as the effect.When the king knew it, it was imitated. This is the prototype of soap.By 70 AD, the Roman Empire scholar Printi was successful for the first time with sheep oil and grass -gray -based soap.Later, it was passed on to the United Kingdom. Queen Elizabeth I ordered the construction of the factory to produce soap with raw materials such as cooked sheep fat and alkali.It was not until the French chemist's Ludlan first used the electrolytic salt method to make alkalinity that the soap cost was greatly reduced. Since then, the soap has gradually entered people's lives.

  ◆拉鏈的由來

◆ The origin of the zipper

  拉鏈又稱拉鎖。它是近代方便人們生活的十大發明之一。1893年,美國芝加哥的一位叫賈德森的工程師,把一個個很小的顆粒狀元件作為連接件,分別交錯地鑲嵌在兩條布帶子的邊緣上,然后通過一個滑動件達到嚙合或分開的目的。這就是現在拉鏈的雛形,當時稱為“滑動系牢物”,又名“可移動的扣子”。遺憾的是,這種“可移動的扣子”很不好用?;瑒蛹3Rён?,安在服裝、靴子等制品上,穿著走動經常會自動爆開,產品雖冠以“扣必妥”商標,使用者卻日漸減少。風行一時的“可移動的扣子”后來被一個聰明的美國人加以修改,他將顆粒狀元件的頂端加大,并使之有一定的弧度,這樣元件就不容易自動爆開而令人笑話了。隨著科技的不斷發展及能工巧匠的獨特設計,如今的拉鏈也變得多種多樣,美觀耐用。

The zipper is also known as pulling.It is one of the top ten inventions that facilitate people's lives in modern times.In 1893, an engineer named Jadeson in Chicago, USA, used small granular components as connectors, inlaid on the edge of two cloth bands, and then achieved the purpose of meshing or separating through a slider.EssenceThis is the prototype of the zipper now.Unfortunately, this "mobile button" is not easy to use.The sliding parts often bite the belt. Ann on clothing, boots and other products. It often bursts automatically when wearing movements. Although the product is "deducted" trademark, users are gradually decreasing.The popular "moving buttons" was later modified by a smart Americans. He increased the top of the granular component and made it a certain arc.EssenceWith the continuous development of science and technology and the unique design of capable craftsmen, today's zipper has become diverse, beautiful and durable.

  ◆筷子的由來

◆ The origin of chopsticks

  中國人使用筷子,大約在三千多年以前。其實,在使用筷子之前,我們的祖先同樣也經歷了一個用手抓飯吃的過程。但熱粥湯羹又如何抓取得了呢?于是不得不隨地折取一些草莖木棍來幫助??曜?,可謂是中國的國粹。它既輕巧又靈活,在世界各國的餐具中獨樹一幟,被西方人譽為“東方的文明”。我國使用筷子的歷史可追溯到商代?!妒酚?微子世家》中有“紂始有象箸”的記載,紂為商代末期君主,以此推算,我國至少有三千多年的用筷歷史了。先秦時期稱筷子為“挾”,秦漢時期叫“箸”。古人十分講究忌諱,因“箸”與“住”字諧音,“住”有停止之意,乃不吉利之語,所以就反其意而稱之為“筷”。這就是筷子名稱的由來。

The Chinese people used chopsticks about 3,000 years ago.In fact, before using chopsticks, our ancestors also experienced a process of grabbing rice with hand.But how did the hot porridge soup caught? So I had to fold some straw and wooden sticks to help.Chopsticks are the national essence of China.It is both lightweight and flexible, unique in tableware in various countries around the world, and is hailed as "Eastern civilization" by Westerners.The history of Chinese chopsticks can be traced back to the Shang Dynasty."Historical Records? The Weizi Family" has the record of "there is a elephant". The monarch of the late Shang Dynasty was used to calculate that my country has a history of more than 3,000 years of chopsticks.The pre -Qin period was called "” ", and the Qin and Han dynasties were called" 箸 ".The ancients were very particular about taboos. Because of the word "箸" and "living", "living" had the meaning of stopping, but it was not auspicious.This is the origin of the name of chopsticks.

  ◆牛仔褲的由來

◆ The origin of jeans

  如今牛仔褲已在世界各國廣為流行。然而追溯起來,牛仔褲是19世紀才出現的。1850年,美國西部出現了淘金熱。19世紀50年代末,有個普魯士裔美國人名叫利維?斯特勞斯的淘金者來到舊金山。他原先是個布商,隨身帶著幾匹可做帳篷、車篷的帆布。他看到淘金工穿著的棉布褲極易磨破,便用所帶厚實的帆布裁做低腰、直腿統、臀圍緊小的褲子出售,大受淘金工的歡迎,自此轉而成為牛仔們的特色服裝。利維進而把褲料改為靛藍斜紋粗布,他的生意越做越大,于1871年申請專利,正式成立“利維?斯特勞斯公司”,后發展成為國際性公司,產品遍及世界各地。

Now jeans are widely popular in countries around the world.But tracing back, jeans only appeared in the 19th century.In 1850, the gold rush fever appeared in the western United States.At the end of the 1950s, the gold rushman of the Prussian American named Liva Straus came to San Francisco.He was originally a cloth dealer, with a few canvas with a few horses that can be tent and tent.When he saw that the cotton pants worn by the Gold Workers were very easy to wear, they were sold with low waist, straight legs, and small hips with thick canvas tailors.Special costumes of denim.Liva and then changed their pants to the blue oblique lines. His business became bigger and bigger. In 1871, he applied for a patent and officially established the "Liva Straus Company".Essence

  ◆牙刷的由來

◆ The origin of toothbrush

  大約在1770年,威廉?阿迪斯因煽動騷亂被關押在英國監獄里。一天早晨他洗過臉后,用一小塊布擦牙,根據傳說,這種洗牙的方法是由亞里士多德建議,并由亞歷山大大帝最先使用的??墒乔谟谒伎嫉陌⒌纤褂X得這個方法不管用,便想出一個新主意:先在一塊骨頭上鉆了一些小孔,然后向監獄看守要了硬豬鬃切斷綁成小簇,一頭涂上膠,嵌到骨頭上的小孔中去。這樣,人類歷史上的第一把牙刷就誕生了。

About 1770, William Adis was detained in a British prison for inciting riots.One morning, after washing his face, he wiped his teeth with a small piece of cloth. According to the legend, this method of washing teeth was proposed by Aristotle and was first used by Alexander Emperor.However, Adis, who was diligent in thinking, thought that this method did not use it, and came up with a new idea: first drilling some small holes on a bone, and then asked the prison to take the hard bristles to cut into small clusters, apply a glue, and apply it.Wet in the small holes on the bone.In this way, the first toothbrush in human history was born.

  ◆眼鏡的由來

◆ The origin of glasses

  眼鏡已不是什么稀罕之物,然而迄今尚未有人考證出眼鏡究竟是何人發明、又是何人首先配戴的。最早的透鏡是在伊拉克的尼尼書遺址發現的。它是用水晶石制作的,直徑1.5英寸,焦距4.5英寸。由此可以知道古巴比倫人和吉亞洲人已經發現某些透明寶石具有放大作用。但是,可以肯定他們和古希伯來人以及古埃及人都不知道使用眼鏡。眼鏡可能是在13世紀末期在中國和歐洲同時出現的。馬可?波羅大約在1260年記載:“中國的老年人看小字時戴著眼鏡?!?4世紀曾有記載說中國的一個紳士用一匹馬換了一副眼鏡。中國古老的眼鏡鏡片很大,呈橢圓形,通常用水晶石、石英、黃玉或紫晶制成,鏡片鑲嵌在烏龜殼做的鏡框里。有的眼鏡帶有銅質的眼鏡腳,卡在鬢角上,有的用細繩子系在耳朵上,也有的把眼鏡固定在帽子上。由于眼鏡框是用象征神圣的動物——烏龜的殼做的,鏡片是寶石做的,所以眼鏡被視作貴重物品。最初人們配戴眼鏡是為了表示吉祥或者表示身份高貴,而不是為了改善視力。眼鏡在13世紀由兩位意大利醫生傳入歐洲,直到14世紀中葉才被廣泛使用。當初歐洲人也把眼鏡看做區分人們身份高低的裝飾品.歐洲早期的眼鏡是由各種寶石做的單一的放大鏡,使用時拿在手里,就像現在人們讀書時用的放大鏡。16世紀初,供近視眼鏡用的凹透鏡才問世。最初,眼鏡是架在鼻子上的,造成了使用者呼吸困難。后來發明了眼鏡架,或用皮條把眼鏡系在頭上,這才解決了呼吸困難問題。到1784年美國的本杰明?富蘭克林發明出雙光眼鏡,眼鏡才算完善起來。

Glasses are no longer a rare thing, but no one has been verified so far who has inventing and who wears it first. The earliest lens was discovered at the Nini site in Iraq. It is made with crystal stones with a diameter of 1.5 inches and a focal length of 4.5 inches. From this we can know that the Babylonians and the Jacians have found that some transparent gems have a magnifying effect. However, they can be sure that they and Guxibeli and ancient Egyptians do not know the use of glasses. Glasses may appear at the same time in China and Europe at the end of the 13th century. Marco Polo recorded in 1260: "The elderly in China wearing glasses when looking at small words." In the 14th century, a gentleman in China changed a pair of glasses with a horse. The ancient Chinese glasses lenses are very large and are oval. They are usually made of crystal stones, quartz, yellow jade or amethyst. The lens is inlaid in the frame made of the turtle shell. Some glasses have copper's feet, stuck on the corner, some are tied to the ears with thin ropes, and some are fixed on the hat. Because the glasses frame is made of the shell of a symbol of sacred, the lens is made of gems, the glasses are regarded as valuable items. At first, people wearing glasses was to express auspiciousness or noble identity, not to improve vision. Glasses were introduced into Europe by two Italian doctors in the 13th century, and they were not widely used until the middle of the 14th century. At the time, Europeans also regarded glasses as decorations that distinguished people's identities. Early European glasses were a single magnifying glass made of various gems. They were used in their hands when they were used, just like the magnifying glass used when people were reading. At the beginning of the 16th century, the concave lens for myopia was only available. Initially, glasses were placed on the nose, causing users to breathe difficulties. Later, the glasses rack was invented, or the glasses were tied to the head with a strip, which solved the problem of breathing difficulties. By 1784, Benjamin Franklin invented the double light glasses, and the glasses were improved.

  ◆床的由來

◆ The origin of the bed

  床最早源于我國的商代。原始社會,人們生活簡陋,睡覺只是鋪墊植物枝或獸皮等,掌握了編織技術后就鋪墊席子。席子出現以后,床就隨之出現。商代甲骨文中,已有像床形的字“淋”,說明商代已有床。但從實物來看,最早的床是在信陽長臺關一座大型楚墓中發現的,上刻繪著精致的花紋,周圍有欄桿,下有6個矮足,高僅19厘米。春秋以來,床往往兼作其他家具。人們寫字、讀書、飲食都在床上放置案幾。晉代著名畫家顧愷之的《女史箴圖》中所畫的床,高度已和今天的床差不多。另外還出現一種四足的高床。但床仍未成為睡臥的專用家具。唐代出現桌椅后,人們生活飲食等都是坐椅就桌,不再在床上活動。床由一種多功能的家具,退而成為專供睡臥的用品。19世紀20年代出現了彈簧床。19世紀后期,金屬床開始出現。

The earlier bed originated from the Shang Dynasty in my country.In the primitive society, people's lives are rude. Sleeping is just paving plant branches or animal skin. After mastering the weaving technology, the mats are paved.After the mat, the bed appears.In the Oracle of the Shang Dynasty, there is already a bed -shaped word "dumpling", indicating that the Shang Dynasty already had beds.However, from the physical point of view, the earliest bed was found in a large -scale Chu tomb in Changtai, Xinyang. It was painted with exquisite patterns. There were railings around, with 6 dwarf feet, only 19 cm high.Since the Spring and Autumn Period, beds have often become other furniture.People are writing, reading, and eating in bed.The beds drawn in the "History of Girls" in the famous painter Gu Kaizhi of the Jin Dynasty are high than today's bed.There is also a four -legged high bed.But the bed has not become a special furniture for sleeping.After the table and chairs appeared in the Tang Dynasty, people's diet, diet, and other chairs were placed at the table, and they no longer moved on the bed.The bed is retired from a multifunctional furniture to become a specialty for sleeping.Spring beds appeared in the 1820s.In the late 19th century, metal beds began to appear.

  ◆香水的由來

◆ The origin of perfume

  香水的英文“Perfume”源自拉丁文中的“Parfumare”,即經過煙熏的意思。公元前2000年,是西亞的亞述人最先掌握了用草藥制造香脂的原始技術;在中東和遠東,尤其是古老的埃及和中國,人們也早已學會運用香料的芬芳來實現對美的追求。公元前1500年,香水的使用已日趨普遍,埃及艷后克婁巴特拉奧(Cleopatra)就經常使用15種不同氣味的香水和香油來洗澡,甚至還用香水來浸泡她的船帆。古羅馬人喜歡把香水涂在任何地方,馬的身上,甚至造墻的砂漿中。古埃及時期,在公共場所中不涂香水是違法的。古希臘婦女在宗教儀式上也要撒潑香水。其后,隨著羅馬帝國沒落,香水的發展也分成了兩個不同的領域。一方面,德國教士發明了蒸餾技術;另一方面,香水王國——法國從東方進口的獨特香料中,發掘其中的芳香特質。于是,歐洲香水工藝開始進入了繁盛時期。15世紀至19世紀末,意大利人廣泛使用了香水。16世紀還出現了濃烈的動物脂香味,隨后很快流行到法國、英國和其他歐洲國家。

The English "Perfume" of perfume is derived from the "Parfumare" in Latin, that is, the meaning of smoking. In 2000 BC, the Assyrian of West Asia first mastered the original technology of creating bastilities with herbs; in the Middle East and Far East, especially ancient Egypt and China, people have already learned to use the fragrance of spices to achieve the pursuit of beauty. In 1500 BC, the use of perfumes has become more common. Cleopatra (Cleopatra), Egypt, often uses 15 different smells of perfumes and sesame oil to take a bath, and even use perfume to soak her sail. The ancient Romans like to apply perfume anywhere, horses, and even the mortar built by the wall. In the ancient Egyptian period, it was illegal to apply perfume in public places. Ancient Greek women also spilled perfume at the religious ritual. Since then, as the Roman Empire declines, the development of perfume has also been divided into two different fields. On the one hand, German priests invented the distillation technology; on the other hand, the perfume kingdom, the unique spice imported from the East, discovered the aromatic characteristics. As a result, the European perfume process began to enter a prosperous period. From the 15th century to the end of the 19th century, the Italians widely used perfumes. There was also a strong animal scent of animals in the 16th century, and then soon became popular to France, Britain and other European countries.

  ◆麻將的由來

◆ The origin of Mahjong

  傳說,麻將一百零八張牌隱喻梁山一百單八將,是元末明初一個崇拜水滸英雄的人發明的。麻將被胡適稱為“國戲”,今又普及成健康娛樂活動。麻將牌又稱麻雀牌、竹城之戰、方城之戰?,F代麻將牌產生于明末清初,起初在我國江、浙一代流行,19世紀20年代初被作為“巨額商品”向外輸出,流入西方和日本。麻將牌是由明代的一種娛樂品——馬吊牌名稱變化而來的,麻將牌最早的文字記載寫為馬將牌,可見麻將牌名稱的來源與馬吊牌的名稱有聯系?!肚灏揞愨n》中記載:“麻雀牌是馬吊牌一音之轉?!甭?、馬二字同音,江浙一帶的鄉音稱鳥為刁,刁讀去音就是吊。于是,馬吊就讀了麻將,麻將牌由此得名。在明末清初馬吊牌盛行的同時,由馬吊牌又派生出一種叫“紙牌”(也叫默和牌)的戲娛用具。紙牌也是供四人打,由紙制成的牌長二寸許,寬不到一寸。紙牌開始共有60張斗紙牌時,四人各先取十張,以后再依次取牌、打牌。這些牌目及玩法就很像今天的麻將牌了。這種牌戲在玩的過程中始終默不作聲,所以又叫默和牌。后來人們發現在玩麻將時常常把牌拿完了,也沒有人做成牌,感到掃興。為彌補這個缺憾,于是又增加了聽用。最初的聽用只增加兩張,逐漸發展增加為更多的張,直到發展為有繪圖的麻將牌。但由于紙牌的數量一多,在取、舍、組合牌時十分不便,人們從骨牌中受到啟發,漸漸改成骨制,把牌立在桌上,打起來就方便了。正宗的麻將牌從此開始。

According to legend, the 108 cards of Mahjong metaphorized the one hundred and eight generals of Liangshan, which was invented by a person who worshiped the heroes of the Water Margin in the late Yuan and early Ming Dynasty. Mahjong was called "national opera" by Hu Shi, and today it has become a healthy entertainment activity. Mahjong cards are also known as sparrow cards, Battle of Bamboo City, and Fangcheng Battle. Modern mahjong cards were born in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties. At first, they became popular in the Jiang and Zhejiang generations in my country. In the early 1920s, they were exported as "huge commodities" and flowed into the West and Japan. Mahjong cards are changed from a kind of entertainment in the Ming Dynasty -the name of the horse tag. The earliest text record of Mahjong cards is written as a horse general card. It can be seen that the source of the name of the Mahjong card is connected with the name of the horse tag. "Qingya Banknote" records: "The sparrow card is a tone of a horse." Therefore, the horses were studying Mahjong, and the Mahjong card was named. While the horse tags prevailed in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, a horse tag was assigned another entertainment utensil called "card" (also called Mohe card). The card is also for four people. The cards made of paper are two inches long and less than one inch. When the cards began to have a total of 60 fighting cards, the four of them took ten first, and then they took the cards and played cards in turn. These brands and gameplay are very similar to today's mahjong cards. In the process of playing, this kind of play is always silent, so it is also called Mohe. Later, people found that they often finished playing the cards in playing Mahjong, and no one made a card. In order to make up for this shortcoming, listening was added. The initial hearing only added two more, and gradually developed to more to develop until it developed into a mahjong card with drawing. However, due to the number of cards, it is very inconvenient to take, house, and combination cards. People are inspired by bone cards, gradually changed to bone system, and standing on the table, which is convenient to fight. Authentic Mahjong cards start.

  ◆撲克牌的由來

◆ The origin of poker cards

  撲克牌是什么時候出現的?是誰發明的?這兩個問題在國外曾引起爭議。意大利人說:世界上第一個發明撲克牌的,是威尼斯人。古代威尼斯商人出外經商,發明了用撲克牌來計算日期和消遣娛樂。法國人說:撲克牌是在1392年時,一個學者專門為有精神病的法國皇帝卻爾斯六世娛樂而設計的。比利時人說:早在1379年時,撲克牌就在比利時出現了??捎┪镳^里至今保存著一個瑞士僧侶的文件,里面記載撲克牌在1377年,就已經流傳到瑞士了。國外還有人認為,撲克牌應是中國人發明的。因為在我國宋代時,民間就流行一種“葉子戲”的紙牌(叫“葉子牌”,有兩個手指大小。長8公分,闊2.5公分的“葉子牌”,用絲綢及紙裱成,圖案是用木刻版印成的)。他們認為這種紙牌是在明朝或宋、元時期,由商人、傳教士傳到國外去的,西方受此啟發,才改制成現在流行的撲克牌。撲克牌的設計十分奇妙,它是根據歷法而設計的。一副撲克牌為什么是52張(大、小王除外)呢?原來這是因為一年中有52個星期。撲克牌為什么有紅桃、方塊、草花、黑桃四種花色之分?它象征著一年春夏秋冬四個季節。因此,我們也不難想到,每種花色為什么都有13張牌,這表示一個季節里有13個星期。如果我們把54張牌的點數全部加起來,就可以進一步證明撲克牌與歷法的關系。如果把“J”當十一點,“Q”當十二點,“K”當十三點,大、小王各當作半點,把54張牌的點數加起來,恰巧是全年365的總天數。大、小王牌的設計也有其道理,大王(正司令)代表著太陽,小王代表著月亮。一副牌為什么有紅(紅桃、方塊)、黑(草花、黑桃)之分呢?現在也可懂得其中道理了:紅表示白天,黑表示夜晚。

When did the poker card appear? Who invented? These two questions have caused controversy abroad. The Italians said: The first to invent a poker in the world was the Venetian. Ancient Venice merchants went out to business and invented the use of playing cards to calculate the date and recreational entertainment. The French said: In 1392, a scholar was designed specially for the French emperor with mental illness. Belgians said: As early as 1379, poker cards appeared in Belgium. But the British Museum has preserved a document of a Swiss monk so far, which records that the poker card has been circulated to Switzerland in 1377. Some people abroad believe that poker cards should be invented by the Chinese. Because in the Song Dynasty in my country, the folk was popular with a "leaf drama" card (called "leaf card", with two fingers size. 8 cm long and 2.5 cm wide "leaf card", mounted with silk and paper, The pattern is printed with a woodcut version). They believe that this card was passed on to foreign countries during the Ming Dynasty or Song and Yuan dynasties. The West was inspired by this and was converted into a popular poker card. The design of the poker card is very wonderful, it is designed based on the calendar. Why is a pair of poker cards 52 (except for big and small king)? It turned out to be because there were 52 weeks of the year. Why are the poker cards: red peaches, blocks, grass flowers, and spades? It symbolizes four seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter. Therefore, it is not difficult to think of why each color has 13 cards, which means that there are 13 weeks in a season. If we add all the points of 54 cards, we can further prove the relationship between playing cards and calendar. If "J" is eleven o'clock, "Q" is 12 o'clock, "K" is 13 o'clock, and the big and small kings are the same as the big and small kings. Total days. The design of the big and small trump cards also makes sense. The king (commander) represents the sun, and the little king represents the moon. Why is there a name of red (red peach, square) and black (grass flowers, spagen)? Now you can also understand the truth: red means during the day, black means night.

  ◆旗袍的由來

◆ The origin of the cheongsam

  旗袍原是我國滿洲旗人婦女的服裝,并隨清朝建立引入中原。起初式樣寬大、平直、衣長至足。在繡花紅緞的旗袍上,領、襟、袖口的邊緣都鑲有寬邊。20世紀20年代末期,式樣有了改變,衣長縮短到膝下。到了20世紀30年代,旗袍盛行,成為女子最時髦的服裝。式樣也各異,領有高有低,袖子也時長時短,衣長有下擺至曳地的,也有短過膝的。20世紀40年代的旗袍大都不要袖子,衣長縮短,領子減低,穿起來輕便合體。改革開放后,隨著時代的發展、生活方式和人們審美觀念的變化,旗袍又回到人們的生活之中?,F在的旗袍,式樣色料愈加豐富多彩。有的也與裙子、馬甲等其他服裝樣式組配或融合,更富有現代氣息。

The cheongsam was the clothing of women's women in Manchuria, and the Central Plains was introduced with the Qing Dynasty.At first, it was wide, straight, and long.On the embroidered red satin cheongsam, the edges of the collar, placket, and cuffs are inlaid with wide edges.In the late 1920s, the style changed, and the clothes were shortened to the knee.By the 1930s, cheongsam prevailed, becoming the most fashionable clothing of women.The styles are also different, with high and low, the sleeves are short, and the clothes have a hem to the ground, and there are also shorter than the knee.Most of the cheongsams in the 1940s do not need their sleeves, shortened their clothes, the collar is reduced, and it is lightly fitted.After the reform and opening up, with the development of the times, lifestyle and people's aesthetic concepts, cheongsam returned to people's lives.The current cheongsam is more and more colorful.Some are also matched or fused with other clothing styles such as skirts and vests, which is more modern.

  ◆高跟鞋的由來

◆ The origin of high heels

  關于高跟鞋的由來,有兩種說法。一種說法是源于法蘭西國王路易十四。當時,路易十四苦于自己身材矮小,不能在臣民面前充分顯示他高貴的氣度,就吩咐手下人為他定制了一雙高跟鞋。此后法國貴族男女們紛紛仿效,并很快傳遍全國乃至歐洲大陸。還有一種傳說是,15世紀時威尼斯有個商人,外出時害怕漂亮的妻子行為不端,就給妻子定做了一雙后跟很高的鞋,以防止妻子外出??善拮涌吹竭@雙奇特鞋后,覺得十分好玩,就讓傭人陪著她走街串巷,出盡了風頭。人們覺得她的鞋很美,爭相仿效。于是高跟鞋很快就流行開了。

There are two sayings about the origin of high heels.One is derived from King Louis XIV, King of France.At that time, Louis XIV suffered a short figure and could not fully show his nobleness in front of the subjects. He ordered his men to customize a pair of high heels for him.Since then, the French aristocratic men and women have followed up, and quickly spread throughout the country and even the European continent.There is also a legend that in the 15th century, there was a businessman in Venice. When he went out, he was afraid that the beautiful wife was not behavior, so he made a pair of high -heeled shoes for his wife to prevent his wife from going out.But after seeing these strange shoes, the wife felt very fun, so she let the servant accompany her to the streets and made the limelight.People think her shoes are beautiful and scramble to follow.So high -heeled shoes were quickly popular.

  ◆耳環的由來

◆ The origin of the earrings

  關于耳環的由來,民間有個傳說。說是古代有一位俊俏的姑娘患了眼病,不久雙目失明。一天,有位名醫路遇,見美貌的姑娘受著失明之苦,不禁動了惻隱之心,于是在她兩側耳垂上各刺入一根銀針。說也怪,這神奇的銀針竟使姑娘重見了光明。為銘記名醫之恩,姑娘專請銀匠打制了一對耳環戴在耳上。此后姑娘越發眉清目秀,令人羨慕。此事傳開后,女人們紛紛仿效一直流傳至今。原來穿耳明目正是我國古代醫學的一種“耳針療法”?,F代醫學已證明:刺激耳垂正中的穴位,對保護視力防治各種眼疾,尤其是近視眼有良好的療效。

There is a legend about the origin of the earrings.It was said that in ancient times, a handsome girl suffered from eye disease, and soon became blind.One day, a famous doctor met. Seeing the beautiful girl suffering from blindness, she couldn't help but move her heart, so she pierced a silver needle on her earlobe on both sides.To put it bluntly, this magical silver needle actually made the girl see the light.In memory of the grace of famous doctors, the girl asked the silver artist to make a pair of earrings on the ear.Since then, the girl has become more and more eye -catching, which is enviable.After the incident spread, women have been imitating all the time.It turned out to be a "ear needle therapy" in ancient Chinese medicine.Modern medicine has proven that the acupuncture points in the middle of the earlobe are stimulated, and various eye diseases, especially myopia, have a good effect.

  ◆胭脂的由來

◆ Origin of Rouge

  胭脂在我國婦女中的使用,很早就已經普及了。胭脂是由商紂王時代的北京人發明的,又稱“月燕脂”、“燕支”。據《二儀錄》記載:“燕支起自紂,以紅蘭花汁凝脂,以為桃花妝,燕國所出,故曰'燕胭’?!彪僦陌l明至今已有三千年的歷史了。如今,它作為一種化妝品,不僅深受國人喜愛,而且暢行于全世界。

The use of Rouge in Chinese women has been popularized long ago.Rouge was invented by the Beijingers of the King of Shangyang, also known as "Yueyan fat" and "Yanzhi".According to the "Eryi Record" record: "Yan Zhi rose to supper, with red orchid juice condensing fat, thinking that peach blossom makeup, Yan Guo, so said 'It's right.Today, as a cosmetics, it is not only loved by the Chinese, but also travels all over the world.

  六、常用語類

6. Commonly used language

  ◆“東西”的由來

◆ The origin of "East and West"

  “東西”一詞是我們通常對一切物體的總稱。因為古代通常把東西南北中與金木水火土相配,稱為“五行”。有一次宋朝朱熹去會他的朋友盛溫和,正巧盛提籃上街買東西了,于是朱熹便問他:“難道不買南北﹖”盛溫和答道:“東方屬木,西方屬金,凡屬金類、木類的我這個籃子就裝得;南方屬火,北方屬水,火類、水類我這個籃子就裝不得。所以只能買東西,不能買南北?!痹瓉?,東方屬木,代表一切植物,如花草、樹木等;西方屬金,代表一切金屬礦物,如金銀銅鐵等;南北中則是屬水、火、土。水、火、土是人們司空見慣的化學現象或物質,容易被古人忽視。而屬木的植物和屬金的金屬礦物普遍受到人們重視,可以用來代表一切有用的物質。所以人們便把代表“木”和“金”的兩個方面聯在一起,“東西”一詞由此而來。

The term "things" is our general term for all objects.Once the Song Dynasty Zhu Xi went to the meeting with his friends, who happened to be gentle, and happened to be linked to the streets to buy things, so Zhu Xi asked him: "Don't buy North and South?"Gold and wooden meters are installed in this basket; the south belongs to fire, the north belongs to water, and the fire and water can not be pretended. So I can only buy things and not buy north and south. "Represents all plants, such as flowers and plants, trees, etc.; Western gold, representing all metal minerals, such as gold, silver, copper and iron, etc.; north and south are water, fire, and soil.Water, fire, and soil are common chemical phenomena or substances that people are commonplace, and they are easily ignored by the ancients.The plants belonging to the wood and the golden metal minerals are generally valued and can be used to represent all useful substances.Therefore, people connect the two aspects of "wood" and "gold", and the term "things" comes from this.

  ◆“磨洋工”的由來

◆ The origin of "grinding foreign workers"

  人們習慣于將消極怠工、只出工不出力的現象稱為“磨洋工”。其實,最初“磨洋工”并不是指磨蹭、怠工的意思,而是指建筑工程的一道工序。中國舊式的房屋建筑,官宦人家一向講究“磨磚對縫”。磨工,就是指對磚墻的表面進行打磨,使之平整、光滑,相當于現在的勾縫和打磨石類的裝修。1917年至1921年,美國用清政府的“庚子賠款”在北京建造協和醫院和協和醫學院。工程耗資500萬美元,占地222公頃,而且建筑質量要求甚高,外觀上采取中國傳統的磨磚對縫、琉璃瓦頂。由于這項工程是由外國人出資、設計,中國工人就稱它為“洋工”。協和醫院共有主樓14座,又是高層建筑,“磨工”工序十分浩繁。所以,參加建筑工程的許多工人就把這一工序稱為“磨洋工”。至于后來的意思,也許是出于對西方帝國主義者侵略中國的罪惡行徑的一種不滿的發泄,最終改變了原來的意思。歷史上這種訛傳的例子還有很多。

People are accustomed to referring to the phenomenon of negative idleness and only work without work. In fact, the initial "grinding foreign workers" did not mean the meaning of rubbing and idleness, but a process of construction engineering. Old Chinese -style housing buildings, officials and officials have always paid attention to "grinding bricks". The grinding is to polish the surface of the brick wall to make it flat and smooth, which is equivalent to the current seams and polishing stone decoration. From 1917 to 1921, the United States used the Qing government's "Gengzi compensation" in Beijing Construction Union Hospital and Xiehe Medical College. The project costs $ 5 million, covering an area of ??222 hectares, and the building quality requirements are very high. In the appearance, the traditional Chinese grinding brick -grinding and glazed tile top is adopted. Since this project is funded and designed by foreigners, Chinese workers call it "foreign workers". There are 14 main buildings in Xiehe Hospital, and they are high -rise buildings. The "grinding" process is very good. Therefore, many workers participating in construction projects call this process "grinding foreign workers". As for the later meaning, it may be a kind of dissatisfaction with the sinful behavior of the invasion of Western imperialists who invades China, which eventually changed the original meaning. There are many examples of this kind of biography in history.

  ◆“混帳”的由來

◆ The origin of "mixing"

  “混帳”與蒙古包有關。從前,我國北方的蒙古族過著群居的游牧生活。為了維持生計,他們經常帶著帳篷式的蒙古包,趕著牛羊和馬群,到處游蕩;碰上有水草的地方便支起蒙古包,定居下來。白天,男人們去放牧,留下老人或婦女看守帳篷。這時,在家的一些年輕小伙子為了找年輕姑娘談情說愛,就亂竄帳篷,混進姑娘帳篷里去。如果帳蓬里沒有其他人,他們就盡情地又說又笑,眉來眼去。如果碰上老頭也在那兒,年輕小伙就會笑嘻嘻地說一聲:“啊!對不起,我走錯帳篷了!”急忙紅著臉退了出來。碰上嚴厲的老頭,待小伙子剛跨進帳篷時,老頭就會憤怒地罵一句:“你又混帳了!”“混帳東西,又來了!”“滾開!”年輕小伙子自討沒趣,急忙退出帳篷。后來,“混帳!”、“混帳東西!”這句話就漸漸地變成了一句令人氣憤至極的罵人的話了。如果看到誰做了不道德、不合情理的事,或馬虎、鬼混、不負責任的人,我們就會罵上一句“混帳!”

"Mixing" is related to the Mongolian bag. In the past, the Mongolians in northern my country lived a nomadic life in groups. In order to maintain their livelihoods, they often took tent -style Mongolian bags to rush cattle and sheep and horses, wandering everywhere; when they encountered waterweed, they set up the Mongolian bag and settled down. During the day, men went to graze and left the elderly or women to guard the tent. At this time, some young guys at home rushed into the tent in order to find the young girl and love the love of the young girl. If there are no other people in the tent, they will say and laugh, and their eyebrows will be. If you meet the old man there, the young guy will say a smile: "Ah! Sorry, I'm going to go wrong with the tent!" He hurriedly retreated with a blushing face. When I met the harsh old man, when the young man just stepped into the tent, the old man scolded angrily: "You mix again!" "Mix the account, come again!" , Hurry out of the tent. Later, the sentence "mixed!", "Mix the account!" This sentence gradually became an angry and curse. If you see who do immorality, unreasonable things, or people who are sloppy, ghost mixed, irresponsible, we will scold the last sentence "mix!"

  ◆“眼中釘”的由來

◆ The origin of "nail in the eyes"

  “眼中釘”人們常用其來形容極為仇視的人。提起這個詞的來歷,還有一段有趣的歷史故事。傳說,北宋真宗年間,宰相丁謂和太監狼狽為奸,把持朝政。當時老宰相寇準尚在朝中,丁謂深知寇準為官公正,剛正不阿,生怕自己所做的壞事被他拿住把柄,引發后患,就千方百計地在皇上面前說他的壞話,后來寇準被排擠出了京城。丁謂所為,被老百姓看得清清楚楚,不久,出現了一首民謠。歌中唱道:“欲得天下寧,須拔眼中丁;欲得天下好,莫如召寇老?!备柚械摹岸 ?,指的就是丁謂。于是,“眼中丁”的說法逐漸流傳開來。到后來,“丁”又演變成“釘”。

"Nail in the eyes" often uses them to describe extremely hatred.Speaking of the origin of this word, there is an interesting historical story.Legend has it that during the Zhenzong period of the Northern Song Dynasty, the prime minister Ding Sai and the eunuch were embarrassed to be treacherous and controlled the government.At that time, the old prime minister Kou Muyun was still in the DPRK. Ding Yi knew that Kou Zhun was just an official, and he was just right.It was squeezed out of Beijing.What Ding said was clearly seen by the people. Soon after, a folk song appeared.The song sang: "If you want to get the world, you have to pull your eyes in your eyes; if you want the world, you will call the old man."As a result, the statement of "Ding in the eyes" gradually spread.Later, "Ding" evolved into "nail" again.

  ◆“OK”的由來

◆ The origin of "OK"

  “OK”是舶來語?!癘K”的意思盡人皆知,但這個詞是怎么來的,則有種種不同的說法。早在1565年,在英國人的遺囑中就出現了這個詞。有人說,它起源于美國內戰時期,講德語的美國人說“OK”表示“Oberoomma”(最高統帥),當時美國有過這一軍銜。有人說,某個德國新聞記者在文章末尾寫上“OK”,意思是“Ohnekovretur”(沒有錯誤)。還有人說可能起源于一個名叫奧托?凱撒(Ottokaiser)的商人,他在檢驗產品后,在合格產品上都貼上寫有自己姓名縮寫字母的標簽。美國辭典的說法是:1840年美國民主黨總統候選人馬丁?范布倫在競選時,用“OK”作為競選口號。原來他出生于紐約的老金德胡克(Oldkinderhoek),用這個地名的頭兩個字母作為競選口號,意思是“競選成功”。語言學家則認為,這是由“Allcorrect”(完全正確)一詞的奇怪拼法(Ollkorrect)而來。但是通常認為,“OK”來自美國的一位記者。1839年3月23日《波士頓晨郵報》一位記者在文章付印前寫上了“OK”。研究古希臘語言的學者認為,這位記者曾受過古典的希臘教育,千百年前,希臘教師在批閱優秀學生的文章時,往往在末尾寫上“Oiakala”或“OK”,意思是一切都好,與英語中“OK”表示的意思(對,好,可以,行)差不多。

"OK" is imported. "OK" is well known, but how this word comes from, there are all kinds of different opinions. As early as 1565, the word appeared in the British will. Some people say that it originated during the American Civil War. Americans who spoke German said "OK" said "Oberoomma" (the highest commander), and the United States had the rank at the time. Some people say that a German journalist wrote "OK" at the end of the article, which means "Ohnekovretur" (no error). Others say that they may originate from a businessman named Otokaiser. After inspecting the product, he has a label with his own name abbreviation letter on the qualified product. The US Dictionary is that in 1840, the US Democratic presidential candidate Martin Van Bulun used "OK" as a campaign slogan. It turned out that he was born in New York, OldKinderhoek, and used the first two letters of this place as a campaign slogan, which means "successful campaign". Linguist believes that this is from the strange spelling of the word "allcorrect" (completely correct). But it is generally believed that "OK" comes from a reporter from the United States. A reporter from the Boston Morning Post on March 23, 1839 wrote "OK" before the article seal. Scholars who study ancient Greek language believe that this reporter has received classical Greek education. Thousands of years ago, when Greek teachers were reviewing articles from outstanding students, they often wrote "Oiakala" or "OK" at the end, which means that everything is everything. Well, it means (yes, yes, yes, line) in English that "OK" in English.

  ◆“解手”的由來

◆ The origin of "solving hands"

  “解手”是人們對上廁所的一種文明說法。歷代戰爭之后,都會發生大規模的移民,那時候的移民是強制性的,因此,有些人留戀家鄉,不肯離開故土,便想方設法逃避,但最終還是逃不過。在遷移的路上,負責護送移民的官吏擔心遷移者中途跑掉,就用一根長繩拴住他們每個人的一只手,這樣連成一串后,遷移者便不易逃掉。但是,人多事也多。有人要大小便時,就央求護送的官吏把繩子解開。一開始,央求的話語比較羅嗦:“長官,我要小便,請解開繩子”,由于央求的次數多了,慢慢的,人們央求的話語也就簡單了,只說我要“解手”,負責護送移民的官吏便知其意了,而后給他把手解開,讓其小便。這就是人們把上廁所稱為“解手”的由來。

"Solving hands" is a civilization of people going to the toilet.After the war of all ages, large -scale immigrants will occur. At that time, immigrants were mandatory. Therefore, some people nostalgic for their hometown and refused to leave their homeland, they tried to escape, but they could not escape.On the way to migration, the officials responsible for escorting the immigration were worried that the relocator ran away, so he tied one hand of each of them with a long rope, so that after it was connected to a string, the migrant was not easy to escape.However, there are many people.When someone wants to urinate, the officials who are looking for escorted the rope.At the beginning, the words of Centrality were relatively verbal: "Siren, I want to urinate, please solve the rope." Because the number of times is more times, slowly, the words of people are simple.The officials responsible for escorting immigrants knew their intentions, and then unbuttoned him to urinate.This is the origin of the toilet calling to the toilet.

  ◆“五花八門”的由來

◆ The origin of "Flowing Eight Dates"

  “五花八門”比喻事物種類繁多,變化莫測,令人眼花繚亂。其實在古時候,“五花八門”各有所指?!拔寤ò碎T”原指“五花陣”與“八門陣”,都是古代兵法中的陣法名稱,后來一般比喻各行各業暗語?!拔寤ā睘椋航鹁栈āu茶的女人;木棉花——街上為人治病的郎中;水仙花——酒樓上的歌女;火辣花——玩雜耍的;土?;ā承┨舴??!鞍碎T”為:一門巾——算命占卦;二門皮——賣草藥的;三門彩——變戲法的;四門卦——江湖賣藝的;五門平——說書評彈者;六門圍——街頭賣唱的;七門調——搭篷扎紙的;八門聊——高臺唱戲的。后來人們用“五花八門”泛指各行各業的繁雜和眾多,隨著時代發展,詞義重心發生變化,即由行業之稱擴展到其他各種事物。

There are many types of "five -door" metaphor, unpredictable changes, and dazzling.In fact, in ancient times, "five flowers" each pointed."Five and Eight Dates" originally referred to as "Five Flowers" and "Eight Gate Array", both of which were names in the formation of ancient warfare. Later, they generally metaphorized secret words from all walks of life.Some picks."Eight Gate" is: a towel -fortune -telling occupies hexagrams; Two Gate Skin -selling herbs; Three Gate -changing tricks; Four Gate Hexagrams -Rivers and Lakes Arts;Liumen Wai -Singing on the street; Qimen Tu -Capricors and Paper; Eight Gate Chat -Gaotai Singing.Later, people used "five flowers" to refer to the complicated and many industries in all walks of life. With the development of the times, the focus of the meaning of the meaning of the meaning of the meaning of the meaning of the meaning of the meaning was expanded from the industry to other things.

  ◆“臨時抱佛腳”的由來

◆ The origin of "Temporary Holding Buddha's Foot"

  臨時抱佛腳是一句俗語,意思是平時沒有準備,臨時慌忙應付或倉惶求救。這句俗語是東漢時由外族人傳入中國的。古時候,在云南的南面有一個外民族建立的小國家,這個小國家的民眾都是信仰釋迦牟尼的佛教徒。有一次,一個被判了死刑的罪犯在深夜掙斷了鎖鏈和木枷越獄逃跑了。第二天清晨,官府發現后即派兵丁差役四處追捕。那個罪犯逃了一天一夜后已精疲力竭,眼看追兵已近,他自知難以逃脫,便一頭撞進了一座古廟。這座廟宇里供著一座釋迦牟尼的坐像,佛像高大無比。罪犯一見佛像,心里悔恨不已,抱著佛像的腳,號啕大哭起來,并不斷用磕頭表示懺悔。這個罪犯一邊磕頭,一邊嘴里不停地說:“佛祖慈悲為懷,我自知有罪,請求剃度為僧,從今往后,再也不敢為非作歹!”不一會兒,他的頭也磕破了,弄得渾身上下都是鮮血。正在這時,追兵趕到。兵丁差役見此情景,竟被罪犯的虔誠信佛、真心悔過的態度感動了,便派人去稟告官府,請求給予寬恕。官府聽后,不敢作主,馬上稟告了國王。國王篤信佛祖,赦免了罪犯的死罪,讓他入寺剃發當了和尚。后來,當這個國家的一些和尚到中國傳播佛教時,將這個故事和所產生的慣用語“臨時抱佛腳”帶入中國,成了我們的俗語。

Temporary hugging the Buddha's feet is a saying, which means that there is no preparation, and temporarily cope with or Cangjie for help. This saying was introduced to China by foreigners during the Eastern Han Dynasty. In ancient times, there was a small country established in the south of Yunnan. The people of this small country were Buddhists who believe in Shakyamuni. On one occasion, a criminal sentenced to death broke the chain and wooden jailbreak in the middle of the night. In the early morning of the next day, after the government discovered, he sent troops to hunt around. After the criminal escaped, he was exhausted after a day and one night. Seeing that the chase was near, he knew that it was difficult to escape, and he hit an ancient temple. The temple is for a Sakyamuni sitting statue, and the Buddha statue is extremely tall. When the criminal saw the Buddha statue, he regretted it, holding the feet of the Buddha statue, cried, and kept crying, and kept using his hoe to express his remorse. The criminals kept saying, "The Buddha is compassionate, and I know sinfulness, and I asked for a monk. It is bloody all over and down. At this moment, the chase arrived. Seeing this scene, Bing Ding was moved by the offender's devotion to the Buddha and the attitude of sincere regret, and sent someone to the government to ask for forgiveness. After listening to the government, he did not dare to be the master, and immediately sued the king. The king believed in the Buddha, pardoned the crime of the criminal, and let him shave his hair as a monk. Later, when some monks in this country spread Buddhism in China, bringing the story and the idioms "temporarily holding Buddha feet" into China, it became our saying.

  ◆“放風箏”的由來

◆ The origin of "kite"

  據史載:風箏在我國已有二千多年的歷史,早在春秋戰國時代,就有人用木、竹做風箏,相傳其代表人物是木匠魯班,以“削木為鷂,成而飛之,三日不下?!薄俄n非子?外儲說左匕》上也有記載:“墨子為木鳶三手而成,蜚(飛)一日而敗?!薄赌印穭t記載了“公輸子削木為鵲,成而飛之,三日不下?!边@些文字記載,都看不出用繩子牽引,加之當時還沒有發明紙,因此可以想見,“木鳶”是用木料制作的,用現代語說是靠滑翔的鳥形飛行器,到了漢朝,才出現了用竹制框架、以紙糊之、以繩牽之、放之空中的“紙鳶”。到五代時,李鄴在風箏上拴上竹笛,微風吹動,嗡嗡有聲,很像“箏”聲,因而得名“風箏”。

According to history: Kite has a history of more than 2,000 years in my country. As early as the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period, some people used wood and bamboo as kites. , Three days will not be taken. "" Han Feizi? Foreign Reserve said the left dagger "also recorded:" Mozi is made of wooden kite three -hand, and the gossip (Fei) loses one day. " Cutting wood as a gag, flying and flying, it will not be taken in three days. "These text records cannot see the traction with a rope. In addition, there was no invention of paper at the time. It is said that it is a "paper kite" that rely on gliding bird -shaped aircraft to use bamboo frames, paper paste, rope, and let it go.By the time of the fifth generation, Li Yan tied bamboo flutes on the kite, blew the breeze, buzzing, and it was like the sound of "zheng", so he was named "kite".

  ◆“拔河”的由來

◆ The origin of "tug of war"

  拔河始于距今二千四百年前春秋時期的楚國。楚國地處大江南北,水道縱橫,除陸軍外,還有一支強大的水軍舟師,并曾發明一種稱之為“鉤拒”的兵器,專門用于水上作戰。當敵人敗退時,軍士以鉤拒將敵船鉤住,使勁往后拉,使之逃脫不了。后來鉤拒從軍中流傳至民間,演變為拔河比賽。到了唐代,拔河活動已廣泛展開?!按舐槿L四五十丈,兩頭分系小索數百條”,可見古代參加拔河的人數比現在的多得多。大繩正中插一根大旗,旗的兩邊劃兩條豎線,稱為河界線。比賽時,以河界線為勝負標志,所以改稱“鉤拒之戲”為“拔河”。一聲令下,河界兩邊選手緊挽繩索,“使相牽引”,圍觀者“震鼓叫噪,為之鼓勁”。

Jaehels began in Chu State of Spring and Autumn Period of 2,400 years ago.The Chu Kingdom is located in the north and south of the river, and the waterway is vertical and horizontal. In addition to the army, there is also a powerful water army division. It has invented a weapon called "hook rejection", which is specially used for water combat.When the enemy retired, the sergeant rejected the enemy ship with hook and pulled it back hard to escape.Later, he rejected from the army to the people and evolved into a tug of war.In the Tang Dynasty, the tug of war has been widely launched."Cannabis is 40 or 50 feet, and the two ends are divided into hundreds of small cables." It can be seen that the number of people participating in tug of war was much more than now.A large flag is inserted in the middle of the big rope, and two vertical lines on both sides of the flag are called the river line.During the competition, the river boundary line was used as the winning and losing symbol, so it was renamed the "hook drama" to "tug of war".With a order, the players on both sides of the river banded the rope tightly, "tractioning the phase", and the onlookers "shocked the drum noise, and inspired."

  ◆“借光”的由來

◆ The origin of "borrowing light"

  “借光”這個詞,現在已經成了人們普遍使用的禮貌用語。人們把凡是請求別人提供某種幫助和從別人那里分享某種榮譽稱作“借光”?!敖韫狻边@個詞由來已久。據《戰國策?秦策》記載,戰國時秦國將軍甘茂曾對齊國使者蘇代講過這樣一個故事:一條江邊住著不少人家,每晚,姑娘們都湊到一起做針線活兒。其中有一位姑娘家境貧寒,買不起燈燭,其余的姑娘嫌棄她,說她愛占小便宜,拒絕她來。這位姑娘說:我雖然買不起燈燭,但是我每晚都比別人先來,把屋子打掃干凈,把坐席鋪設整齊,讓大家一來就能舒適地做活,這對你們多少也有些方便。你們的燈反正是要點的,借給我一點光又有什么損失呢?姑娘們覺得她的話有道理,便把她留下了。

The word "borrowing light" has now become a polite language that people are generally used.People ask others to provide some help and share some honor from others as "borrowing light".The word "borrowing light" has a long history.According to the "Warring States Policy? Qin Ce", the General Qin Guo Gan Mao once in the Warring States Period had told such a story in the Messenger of the Qi Kingdom: a lot of people lived in the river. Every night, the girls made together to do needle lines.One of the girls had a poor family and could not afford the candle. The rest of the girl had abandoned her, saying that she loved to take advantage of the little cheaper and rejected her.The girl said: Although I can't afford the candle, I come first every night than others, clean the house, and lay the seats neatly, so that everyone can live comfortably at once.EssenceYour lights are important anyway. What is the loss of giving me a little light? The girls think that her words make sense and leave her.

  ◆“青春”的由來

◆ The origin of "Youth"

  “青春”一詞原指季節中的春季。它始于漢代,為文史學家劉向首先使用。據劉向《楚辭?大招》載:“青春受謝,白日昭只?!奔创杭窘蹬R,萬物復蘇,呈現勃勃生機。此后相當時期內,文人墨客用“青春”一詞都是這個意思。如杜甫的詩:“白日放歌須縱酒,青春作伴好還鄉?!焙髞?,文人們賦予“青春”一詞以新意,泛指人的青年時期。如王維在《洛陽女兒行》一詩中:“狂夫富貴在青春,意氣驕奢劇季倫?!庇谑?,“青春”一詞逐漸失去春季的詞義,成為青年的代稱。

The term "youth" originally refers to the spring in the season.It started in the Han Dynasty and was first used by Liu Xiang, a literary and historian.According to Liu Xiang's "Chu Ci? Big move", "youth is thanked by youth, only during the day." That is, spring comes, and everything recovers and presents vitality.After that, the word "youth" means this in a considerable period of time.For example, Du Fu's poems: "Putting songs during the day must be liquor, youth is accompanied by a good return." Later, the literati gave the term "youth" with new ideas, referring to people's youth.For example, Wang Wei in the poem "Luoyang's Daughter": "The crazy husband is rich in youth, and Ji Lun is arrogant." So, the word "youth" gradually lost the meaning of spring and became the name of youth.

  ◆“文學”的由來

◆ The origin of "Literature"

  西漢時期,學校的負責人不是叫校長或教官,而是稱“文學”,即負責人稱為張文學、李文學等。漢武帝為選拔人才,特設“賢良文學”科目,由各郡每年舉薦人才上京考試,被舉考者便叫“賢良文學”?!百t良”是指品德端正、道德高尚之人;“文學”則指精通儒家經典的人。魏晉后期,“文學”一詞成為語言藝術的專用名詞。史書上記載的曹丕“好文學”,以著述為務,即是現今所指的文學含義。

During the Western Han Dynasty, the person in charge of the school was not called the principal or instructor, but the "literature", that is, the person in charge called Zhang Wenxue and Li Wenxue.In order to select talents, Emperor Hanwu specially set up "Xianliang Literature" subjects. The counties recommended by each county each year to go to Beijing for examinations."Xianliang" refers to a person with a good morality and a noble morality; "literature" refers to people who are proficient in Confucian classics.In the late Wei and Jin dynasties, the word "literature" became a special term for language art.Cao Yu's "good literature" recorded in the history book takes writing as a matter, which is the literary meaning referred to today.

  ◆“吹牛皮”的由來

◆ The origin of "bragging"

  “吹?!?、“吹牛皮”,是人們生活中最常見的口頭禪。在交通不太發達的時候,相傳在黃河上游一帶,水急浪惡,難以行舟,為此當地的人們常用牛、羊皮制成筏子渡河,它是由幾個形狀像袋子的牛皮口袋連結而成,使用時用嘴將皮筏吹起來,于是那時就有了“吹牛皮”一語。不用足夠的力氣,光談空話,皮筏是吹不起來的。人們常對光說著空話的人說:你有本事就到河邊吹牛皮看。其后,人們就把那些既無知識,又無工作能力,愛說空話大話,夸大其詞的叫做“吹牛皮”了。

"Black" and "Black Black" are the most common mantras in people's lives.When the transportation was not very developed, it was said that in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the water was rushing and evil. For this reason, the local people often used cattle and sheepskin to make rafts and cross the river.In success, use the mouth to blow up the raft with the mouth, so then there was the word "bragging".Without enough strength, just talking about empty talk, the raft cannot be blown.People often say to those who talk about empty talk: You have the ability to blow the skin by the river.Since then, people have made those who have no knowledge and work, and they love to speak empty words.

  ◆“三腳貓”的由來

◆ The origin of "three -legged cat"

  “三腳貓”是形容那些在技藝上略知皮毛而不甚精通的人?!叭_貓”一詞,語出于元末明初陶宗儀的《南村輟耕集》:“張明善作北樂府《水仙子》譏時云……說英雄,誰英雄;五眼雞,岐山鳴鳳;兩頭蛇,南陽臥龍;三腳貓,渭水非熊(非熊即飛熊)?!蔽闹械摹叭_貓”是一種動物。后來,明人郎瑛在《七修類稿》記載:“嘉靖間,南京神樂觀有三腳貓一頭,極善捕鼠,而走不成步?!辈妒笫秦埖膶B?,“三腳貓”的本職技能很不錯,卻“走不成步”,難怪郎瑛接著解釋道:“俗以事不盡善者,謂之三腳貓?!本瓦@樣,“三腳貓”一詞成了做事技藝不精的意思了,并一直沿用到今。

"Three -legged cat" is a person who describes those who know the fur in skills but not very proficient.The word "three -legged cats", the words "Nancun drop farming collection" in Tao Zongyi in the late Yuan and early Ming dynasties: "Zhang Mingshan wrote to the Beiyuefu" Narcot "Shiyun ... Say heroes, who heroes; five -eye chicken, Qishan MingmingPhoenix; two snakes, Nanyang Wolong; three -legged cats, Weishui non -bear (non -bear is flying bear). "The" three -legged cat "in the text is a kind of animal.Later, Ming Ren Lang Ying recorded in the "Seven Repair Drafts": "In the Jiajing, Nanjing God has a three -legged cat with a three -legged cat, and it is very good to catch the rat.His skills are very good, but "you can't walk". No wonder Lang Ying then explained: "Those who are not good at all things are the three -legged cats." In this way, the word "three -legged cat" has become the meaning of doing things that do not do things.It has been used to this day.

  ◆“拍馬屁”的由來

◆ The origin of "shooting horse"

  “拍馬屁”一詞自然是從產馬區流傳起來的。內蒙古、寧夏、青海、新疆等地,草原遼闊,盛產馬匹,而且經常出現寶馬良駒。一般百姓人家都會擁有幾匹馬,以解決行路、運輸等問題,牧民們常以養得駿馬為榮。有時人們牽著馬相遇時,常要拍拍對方馬的屁股,摸摸馬膘如何,并附帶隨口夸上幾聲“好馬”,以博得馬主人的歡心。起初,人們實事求是,好馬說好,可是相沿很久以后,有的人竟不管別人的馬好與壞、強和弱,都一味地只說奉承話,把劣馬也說成是好馬了。于是“拍馬屁”一詞便用來諷刺那些不顧客觀實際、專門諂媚討好別人的行為了。

The word "fart" is naturally circulated from the production horse area.Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang and other places, the grasslands are vast, the horses are rich, and the BMW is a good horse.Generally, the people will have a few horses to solve the problems such as roads and transportation. The herdsmen are often proud of raising horses.Sometimes when people are holding horses, they often pat the other horse's buttocks, touch the horse's puppet, and attach a few "good horses" to win the favor of the owner of the horse.At first, people seemed to be truthfully, and it was good to say good, but after a long time, some people turned out to be the good horse, regardless of the goodness and weakness, strongness of others, and the bad horses.So the word "shooting horse" is used to irony those behaviors of others regardless of the actual situation.

  ◆“無厘頭”的由來

◆ The origin of "nonsense"

  “無厘頭”原來是廣州的方言俚語,含有“無緣無故、莫名其妙”的意思。作為一種文化形態,它是在日常生活平淡無奇的細節、語言和動作中,獵取觀眾意料之外的、令人忍俊不禁的笑料。所以,也有人干脆就把它叫做“反智戲謔”。它是受美國影視影響,并由香港電視臺帶動起來的。20世紀90年代中期開始,由于港臺影視的大量引進,使我國大陸地區也很受“無厘頭”文化的影響。

"Non -Cross" was originally a slang of Guangzhou's dialect, which contains the meaning of "no reason for no reason, inexplicable".As a cultural form, it is a joke that is unbearable and unbearable in dull details, language and movements in daily life.Therefore, some people simply call it "anti -wisdom teasing".It was influenced by American film and television and was driven by Hong Kong TV.Beginning in the mid -1990s, due to the large number of Hong Kong and Taiwan film and television, the mainland China was also affected by the "nonsense" culture.

  ◆“穿小鞋”一詞的由來

◆ The origin of the term "wear small shoes"

  現在,一般把上級對下級或人與人之間進行打擊報復,稱之為“穿小鞋”,這是為什么呢?在封建時代,我國漢族婦女一直沿襲著纏足陋習,腳纏得越小就認為越美,而美其名曰“三寸金蓮”。過去婚姻大事全憑父母之命,媒妁之言,男女雙方根本互不相見,所以,只能依照腳的大小,而衡量女人的俊丑。因此,在媒婆說媒時,必先請男方看女方的鞋樣兒,以示女方腳的大小,一但男方同意了親事,就留下此鞋樣兒了,按此樣尺寸作一雙繡鞋連同訂婚禮物一起送到女方家,成親那天,新娘必須穿上這雙繡鞋,以防腳大而受騙。如果當初故意把尺寸弄小,自然就穿著不舒服,甚至穿不上,從而女方出丑。后來,人們把這一風俗引伸到社會生活中,用來專指那些在背后使壞點子整人,或利用某種職權尋機置人于困境的人為“給人穿小鞋”。

Now, it is generally called "wearing small shoes" to the superiors of lower -level or people. Why? In the feudal era, Chinese women in my country have been following the bad habits of feet. And the name of the name "three -inch golden lotus".In the past, the marriage of marriage was all based on the parents' life and the words of the media. The men and women did not meet each other at all.Therefore, when the matchmaker said the media, he must first ask the man to look at the woman's shoes to show the size of the woman's feet. Once the man agreed with the family affairs, he left this shoe.The gift was sent to the woman's house together. On the day of marriage, the bride had to put on these embroidery shoes to prevent being deceived.If the size was small, she would naturally wear uncomfortable or even unable to wear it, so that the woman was ugly.Later, people extended this custom into social life, and used people who specifically referred to those who made bad ideas behind them, or used some powers to find people to "wear small shoes".

  ◆“走后門”的由來

◆ The origin of "walking the back door"

  不正當的手段來謀求達到某種個人目的,叫“走后門”。此典故據說出自北宋年間。相傳宋哲宗死后,徽宗繼位,以蔡京為相。蔡京拼命貶謫和排斥舊吏,并規定其子女不得出仕和入京,甚至連其詩文也不準流傳,因此引起了人們強烈的不滿。一次朝廷設宴,藝人們在宴間演出了這樣一幕:一個大官據案中坐,傳判各事。有個和尚要求離京出游,因其戒牒是哲宗年間的,即被令還俗;一個道士遺失度牒要求補發,因是哲宗年間出家的,立即被剝下道袍復為百姓。這時,一個屬官上前低聲說:“今國庫發下的俸錢一千貫,皆為舊時錢文,如何處置﹖”這個大官略作沉思,悄悄地說:“那就走后門,從后門搬進來吧”這便是“走后門”的由來。

Improper means to seek a certain personal purpose, called "walking the back door".This allusion is said to be from the Northern Song Dynasty.According to legend, after Song Zhezong's death, Huizong succeeded in the throne, with Cai Jing as the appearance.Cai Jing desperately degraded and rejected the old officials, and stipulated that his children were not allowed to enter the Beijing, and even his poems were not allowed, which caused strong dissatisfaction.Once the court set up a banquet, the artists performed such a scene in the banquet: a big official sitting in the case and judging various things.A monk asked to travel to Beijing because his precept was during the period of Zhezong, that is, he was ordered to return the vulgarity; a Taoist priest lost his degree to reissue, because he became a monk during the period of Zhezong, and he was immediately peeled off the robe and became the people.At this time, a belonging to the official stepped forward and said, "The money issued by the state's treasury is a thousand, all of which are old money, how to deal with it?"Move in from the back door. "This is the origin of" walking the back door ".

  ◆“破天荒”的由來

◆ The origin of "Breaking the Sky"

  科舉制度是逐級選拔,凡是考進士的人,都由地方選送本地區成績最好的人入京赴試。唐朝年間,荊南地區派人參加京城會試(中央一級的科舉考試),四五十年竟沒有一個考中舉人。于是,人們稱荊南地區為“天荒”,把那里遣送的考生稱做“天荒解”。天荒,本指渾沌未開的原始狀態,比如盤古開天地。這里的天荒是指荒而落后的地區。把荊南地區稱做“天荒”,是譏笑那里幾十年沒能有一個人上榜提名。唐宣宗大中四年,荊南應試的考生中終于有個叫劉銳的考中了,總算破了“天荒”。當時,魏國公崔弦鎮守荊南一代,得知劉銳考中進士,便寫信表示祝賀,并贈他70萬“破天荒”錢。劉銳不肯接受崔弦所贈之錢,在給崔弦的回信中,他寫道:“五十年來,自是人廢;一千里外,豈曰天荒?!迸f時文人常用“破天荒”來表示突然得志揚名?,F在用來指從未有過或第一次出現的新鮮事。

The imperial examination system is selected step by step. Those who are admitted to the scholars will be selected by the local region to enter Beijing for trial. During the Tang Dynasty, the Jingnan area sent people to participate in the Beijing City Association Examination (the Central Level of the Central Government), and no one was in the exam. As a result, people call the Jingnan region "Tianhuang" and call the candidates sent there as "the solution of heaven." Tiandi, this refers to the original state of chaos, such as Pan Gu Kaishi. The wasteland here refers to the region where it is deserted. Calling the Jingnan area as "Tianhuang" was ridiculed that he had not been nominated on the list for decades. In the four years of Tang Xuanzong, the candidates who took the test of Jingnan finally had a test named Liu Rui, and finally broke the "wasteland". At that time, Wei Guogong Cui Xian guarded the Jingnan generation. When he learned that Liu Rui was a junior, he wrote a letter to congratulate him, and gave him 700,000 "crackdown" money. Liu Rui refused to accept the money given by Cui Xian. In the reply to Cui Xian, he wrote: "For fifty years, it has been abandoned by people; "He said suddenly became famous. Now it is used to refer to something that has never been or first.

  ◆黑名單的由來

◆ The origin of the black list

  黑名單一詞來源于世界著名的英國的牛津和劍橋等大學。在中世紀這些學校規定對于犯有不端行為的學生,將其姓名、行為列案記錄在黑皮書上,誰的名字上了黑皮書,即使不是終生臭名昭著,也會使人在相當時間內名譽掃地。學生們對學校的這一規定十分害怕,常常小心謹慎,嚴防越軌行為的發生。這個方法被當時一位英國商人借用以懲戒那些時常賒欠不還、不守合同、不講信用的顧客.英國商人把這類顧客的名字開列在黑皮書上,后來又將一些破產者和即將破產的人的名字也排在黑皮單上。事情傳開后,在社會上引起了轟動,先是商人們爭相仿效,繼而,各行各業都興起了黑皮書,不少工廠老板把參加工會的人的名字列在“不予雇傭”欄下。于是,黑名單便在工廠主和商店老板之間秘密地傳來傳去。1950年9月,美國國會通過《麥卡倫法案》,同年12月,總統杜魯門發布命令,宣布美國處于“全國緊急狀態”,正式實行《麥卡倫法案》,他們編制了形形色色的黑名單,按名逮捕和迫害大批進步人士。黑名單的做法由此而固定下來了。

The word black list comes from the world's famous Oxford and Cambridge universities in the world. In the Middle Ages, these schools stipulate that for students who have misconducting behaviors, their names and behaviors are recorded on the Black Paper. Whose name is on the black book, even if it is not for life -long. Inside the reputation sweeping the floor. Students are very scared of this regulation of the school, often cautiously to prevent the occurrence of cross -track behavior. This method was borrowed by a British businessman at that time to punish customers who often owe, do not keep contracts, and do not talk about credit. British businessmen listed the names of such customers on the black book. The names of the bankrupt are also on the black leather list. After the incident was spread, it caused a sensation in society. First, the merchants rushed to follow the imitation. Then, there were black books on all walks of life. Down. As a result, the blacklist came from the factory owner and the owner of the store. In September 1950, the U.S. Congress passed the McCaren Act. In December of the same year, President Truman issued an order announced that the United States was in a "national emergency state" and officially implemented the McCaren Act. A large number of progressive people are arrested and persecuted by name. The blacklist is fixed.

  ◆“露馬腳”的由來

◆ The origin of "Luma"

  宋代以后,婦女逐漸形成纏小腳的陋俗?!叭缃鹕彙薄_纏得越小越美。據傳,明太祖朱元璋自小家境貧寒,年輕時與一位也是平民出身的馬姑娘結了婚。這位馬姑娘長著一雙未經纏過的“大足”,這在當時是一大忌諱。朱元璋當了皇帝以后,仍念馬氏輔佐有功,將她封為明朝的第一位皇后。但是“龍恩”雖重,而深居后宮的馬氏卻為腳大而深感不安,在人前從來不敢將腳伸出裙外。一天,馬氏忽然游興大發,乘坐大轎走上街頭。有些大膽者悄悄瞧上兩眼,正巧一陣大風將轎簾掀起一角,馬氏擱在踏板上的兩只大腳赫然入目。于是,一傳十,十傳百,頓時轟動了整個京城。從此,“馬腳”一詞也隨之流傳于后世。

After the Song Dynasty, women gradually formed the vulgar entangled feet."Three -inch Golden Lotus" — the smaller the feet wrapped, the more beautiful.According to rumors, Ming Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang had a poor family since he was a child, and when he was young, he married a horse girl who was also a civilian origin.The horse girl had a pair of unsatisfactory "big feet", which was a big taboo at the time.After Zhu Yuanzhang became the emperor, he still read Ma's assistance and named her the first queen of the Ming Dynasty.However, although the "Long En" was heavy, the Ma family in the harem was deeply disturbed, and she never dared to put her feet out of the skirt before people.One day, Ma's suddenly traveled to Xingfa and took a big sedan to the streets.Some bold people looked at their eyes quietly, and happened to set off a corner of the car curtain, and Ma's two big feet on the pedal stared at each other.As a result, one passing ten and ten passing hundreds, suddenly the entire capital.Since then, the term "horse foot" has also been circulated in future generations.

  ◆“敲竹杠”的由來

◆ The origin of "Bamboo"

  用別人的弱點或尋找借口向別人敲詐錢財的行為叫“敲竹杠”?!扒弥窀堋边@個詞的來源是這樣的:清朝末年,帝國主義商船紛紛向中國輸入鴉片,毒害中國人的健康,牟取暴利。愛國官吏林則徐向清政府提出禁煙,并在廣州海面派出官船巡邏,查禁鴉片。有一次,官船截住一艘走私船。一個官員抽著旱煙上了商船,監督手下人搜查,他無意之中在船篙上磕煙袋鍋,這個動作可嚇壞了走私商人。原來他們正是打通船篙,隱藏鴉片的。這會兒,走私商人以為官員發現了秘密。他強作笑臉,趁別人不注意把錢塞進官員的手中。這個貪官心領神會,放走了走私船。以后,“敲竹杠”的說法就傳開了?!扒弥窀堋钡膩碓?,還有一種說法:四川山區,有錢人進山燒香時乘坐著一種用竹桿做的滑桿,滑桿由人抬著。走到半山腰抬滑桿的人就敲著滑杠,要求加工錢,否則就不抬人,乘坐滑桿的只好加錢。還有一說:清朝末年,市場上小額的買賣,以銅錢作為單位,店家接錢后便丟在用竹杠做的錢筒里,晚上結賬時再倒出來,謂之“盤錢”,又稱之為“盤點”。當時上海城里有家店鋪,老板很不老實,陌生顧客進門,往往隨意提價。每當伙計在接待顧客時,店主就敲竹杠一下,示意提價。

Using the weakness of others or finding an excuse to blackmail money from others is called "bamboo knock". The source of the word "knocking bamboo" is this: In the late Qing Dynasty, imperialist merchant ships entered opium to China, poisoning the health of the Chinese and making huge profits. The patriotic official Lin Zexu proposed to the Qing government, and sent a patrol of an official ship on the sea of ??Guangzhou to ban the opium. Once, the official ship intercepted a smuggling ship. A official pumped the dry cigarette on the merchant ship and supervised his men to search. He accidentally stabbed a cigarette bag on the ship. This action could scare the smuggling merchants. It turned out that they opened the boat and hidden opium. At this moment, smuggling merchants thought that officials had discovered secrets. He made a smile, and took the money into the hands of officials while others didn't pay attention. The corrupt officials led the gods and let go of the smuggling boat. In the future, the statement of "knocking bamboo" spread. There is another saying of the source of "knocking bamboo": when the mountainous area of ??Sichuan, when the rich people enter the mountain to burn incense, take a slider made of bamboo rods. People who walked to the mountainside to lift the sliding rod knocking on the sliding bars and asked for processing money, otherwise they would not lift people, and they had to add money by taking the sliding rod. There is also a saying: At the end of the Qing Dynasty, a small amount of trading on the market used copper coins as a unit. After receiving the money, the store was thrown in the cash tube made of bamboo bar, and then poured it out at night. It is called "inventory". At that time, there was a shop in Shanghai in Shanghai. The boss was very unrealistic. Stranger customers entered the door and often raised their prices at will. Whenever the guy receives the customer, the owner knocked on the bamboo bar and signaled the price increase.

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